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قديم 10-07-2010, 04:12 PM   #1

عضو مميز

 
الصورة الرمزية المعاقب
 
تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2010
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“Word order in the simple statement”

تكوين الجملة الخبرية
Subject + verb + object + manner + place + time

S. + V. + O. + adv.m + adv.p + adv.t
• Shaimaa helps her mother actively in the kitchen every day.
• Every day Shaimaa helps her mother actively in the kitchen.
لاحظ أن adverb of time ممكن أن يأتي في أول الجملة أو آخرها .
Subject

noun pronoun the adj noun phrase
- The rich - playing
- To play
Verb


Auxiliary – helping model – defective ordinary

Object


noun pronoun adjective
Marwa her The rich

Adverb of Manner
• يتكون الحال بزيادة ( Ly ) في نهاية الصفة كالآتي :
quick quickly bad badly
active actively beautiful beautifully
• لاحظ أن هذه الكلمات تستخدم كصفة وكظرف في وقت واحد مثل :
hard – late – well – fast
أما هذه الكلمات فتستخدم كظرف فقط hardly – lately

Place
وهو يدل على أسماء الأماكن school – factory – club
Time
• ويستخدم فيه الكلمات الدالة على الوقت والزمان
today – every day – yesterday – now – tomorrow
Simple tenses
Tense The present simple The past simple The future simple
Formation
تكوينه First conjugation of the verb
- يتكون من التصريف الأول للفعل Second conjugation of the verb
يتكون من التصريف الثاني للفعل
* shall / will + inf. Am
*Is + going to + inf.
Are
Usage
استخدامه * للتعبير عن عادة أو هيئة أو وصف دائم * للتعبير عن حدث وقع وانتهى في الماضي * للتعبير عن حدث سوف يقع في المستقبل
Time line × × × × × × ×
×
×
Indicators
Guided words Usually – sometimes- always- after- every ..- rarely-generally- occasionally Last… - once –
one day – yesterday – ago – early…-
in the past –
in ancient times Soon – tomorrow – in the future- tonight – next… - in a few minutes – in the evening
Examples
أمثلة -He usually goes to school early.
-The earth moves round the sun -I was born in 1968.
-They played football yesterday.
-Early man lived in caves. -He will travel abroad tomorrow.
-The runners are going to start soon
Notes * تضاف ( S ) إلى نهاية الفعل إذا كان الفاعل مفرد غائب أو ( es ) في نفس الحالة إذا انتهى الفعل ب( ss-ch-sh-o-x)
-He plays well
-She catches the bus …
تحذف ( y ) وتحول إلى(ies ) إذا سبقها حرف ساكن studies * يستخدم الماضي البسيط بعد wish - suppose
I wish I had a car
Suppose I asked you for 100 pounds.
يستخدم بعد
as if – if only • تستخدم هذه الأفعال للدلالة على المستقبل
promise – expect- hope- want-intend-like
من الممكن استخدام المضارع البسيط والمضارع المستمر للتعبير عن المستقبل



Continuous tenses
Present continuous Past continuous Future continuous
Formation Am
Is + V.+ing
are Was
+ V. + ing
Were Shall
+ be+v. +ing
well
Usage
استخدامه • يعبر عن حدث يقع الآن
• يعبر عن حدث مستقبلي مخطط له * يعبر عن حدث كان مستمرا في الماضي عندما قطعه حدث آخر
* يعبر عن حدثين كانا مستمران في الماضي • يعبر عن حدث سيكون مستمرا في المستقبل
• يعبر عن حدث سوف يستمر في المستقبل
Time line
Indicators
Guided words Now- look – listen- still – at present – at this moment – hurry up While – as - when All time tomorrow- this time tomorrow- at…O’clock tomorrow- next
Examples • She is still making the beds
• It is raining now
• Look, the car is running madly • While I was walking in the street, I fell down
• The husband was reading while the wife was cooking • When you next see me I’ll be wearing my suit
• I shall be coming to your house tomorrow
ملحوظة : لاحظ أن أفعال الحواس والشعور والإدراك والملكية وبعض الأفعال التي لا تأتي في صيغة الاستمرار
أفعال الشعور see, hear, smell, notice, feel
أفعال التفكير realize, know, understand, mean, suppose, believe, remember, remember, recollect, trust, mind
أفعال العاطفةwant, desire, refuse, forgive, wish, care, hate, love, like, dislike
أفعال الملكية own, owe, belong ,possess

Perfect tenses

Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect
Formation Have/has + p.p Had + p.p Shall
+ have + p.p
Will
Usage * للتعبير عن حدث وقع في الماضي ولا زال له علاقة بالحاضر أو حدث انتهى توا * للتعبير عن حدث تام وقع في الماضي قبل وقوع حدث آخر ( ماضي بسيط ) للتعبير عن حدث سوف يتم اكتمال وقوعه في المستقبل قبل أن تتم فترة زمنية معينة
Time line
Indicators
Guided words Just- already- ever- never- since- for- yet- so far- lately -recently After- before- as soon as – no sooner……....than-
hardly………….when
scarcely………..when By
In + future
This time
• I haven’t seen him since he traveled abroad.
• We have lived here for ten years.
• She hasn’t come yet. • After he had left his office he returned home
• Before she watched T.V she had finished homework
• No sooner had he found his keys than he lost them again • They will have finished the school in a year
• By next October I will have joined the university
• By next year we shall have built a new house


Perfect continuous tenses

Present Perfect continuous Past Perfect continuous Future Perfect continuous
Formation Have
+ been + v. + ing
Has Had + been + v. + ing Shall
+ have + been + v. + ing
will
Usage للتعبير عن حدث بدأ في الماضي ومازال مستمرا حتى الآن أو انتهى تواً أو يمكن استمراره في المستقبل للتعبير عن الأحداث المستمرة أو المتكررة قبل حدث ماضي انتهى فعلا للتعبير عن حدث مستمر للآن أو سوف يبدأ في الاستمرار بعد قليل وسوف يستمر في المستقبل
Time line
Indicators Since / for + now
So far / till now
All this morning… After - before By / in this time + future
Examples • I have been waiting for you all morning
• He has been reading all afternoon
• It has been raining for two hours and it still hasn’t stopped • I had been working in a shop for years before I got this job
• The boy was delighted with his toy. He had been wanting it for a long time • By the end of the week they will have been living here
• In this time next month we shall have been working in a new school

ملحوظة :
• لا يستخدم المضارع التام المستمر في المبني للمجهول ويستخدم المضارع التام بدلا منه
* She has been cooking Mahshi. – Mahshi has been *****d
• لا يستخدم الماضي التام المستمر في المبني للمجهول ويستخدم الماضي التام بدلا منه
He had been waiting for it a long time - It had been waited for ..

Conjugation of common Irregular verbs
تصريفات الأفعال الشاذة الشائعة
Present Meaning Past Past Participle
awoke يستيقظ awoke Awoke
bear يلد bore Born
bear يحمل bore Born
beat يضرب – يهزم- يدق beat Beaten
become يصبح became Become
Begin يبدأ Began Begun
Bend يثني – ينثني Bent Bent
Bid يأمر Bade Bidden
Bind يربط Bound Bound
Bite يعض- يقضم Bit Bitten
Bleed ينزف Bled Bled
Blow يهب- يعصف Blew Blown
Break يكسر – يتكسر Broke Broken
Breed يربي Bred Bred
Bring يحضر Brought Brought
Broadcast يذيع Broadcast Broadcast
Build يبني Built Built
Burn يحرق- يحترق Burnt Burnt
Burst ينفجر- يندفع Burst Burst
Buy يشتري Bought Bought
Catch يمسك Caught Caught
Cast يلقي Cast Cast
Choose يختار Chose Chosen
Cling يتعلق بـ Clung Clung
Come يأتي Came Come
Cost يكلف – يساوي Cost Cost
Creep يزحف Crept Crept
Cut يقطع Cut Cut
Deal يتعامل Dealt Dealt
Dig يحفر Dug Dug
Do يفعل Did Done
Draw يرسم- يجر Drew Drawn
Drink يشرب Drank Drunk
Drive يقود- يدفع Drove Driven
Dwell يقطن Dwelt Dwelt
Eat يأكل Ate Eaten
Fall يسقط – يقع Fell Fallen
Feed يطعم- يغذي fed Fed
Feel يشعر Felt Felt
Fight يحارب fought Fought
Find يجد found Found
Flee يهرب fled Fled
Fly يطير flew Flown
Forget ينسى forgot Forgotten
Forgive يعفو عن forgave Forgiven
Freeze يتجمد froze Frozen
Get يحصل على got Got
Give يعطي gave Given
Go يذهب went Gone
Grind يطحن ground Ground
Grow ينمو-يزرع-يصبح grew Grown
Hang يشنق hanged Hanged
Hang يعلق hung Hung
Hear يسمع heard Heard
Hide يخفي- يختبئ hid Hidden
Hit يضرب hit Hit
Hold يمسك held Held
Hurt يؤذي- يضر hurt Hurt
Keep يحفظ- يحتفظ بـ kept Kept
Kneel يركع knelt Knelt
Know يعرف knew Known
Lay يضع laid Laid
Lean يسند leant Leant
Lie يرقد lay Lain
Lie يكذب lied Lied
Lead يقود led Led
Leap يقفز Leapt Leapt
Learn يتعلم Learnt Learnt
Leave يترك Left Left
Lend يقرض Lent Lent
Let يدع Let Let
Lose يفقد Lost Lost
Make يصنع- يجعل Made Made
Mean يعني Meant Meant
Meet يقابل Met Met
Pay يدفع Paid Paid
Put يضع Put Put
Read يقرأ Read Read
Ride يركب rode Ridden
Ring يدق rang Rung
Rise ينهض- يشرق rose Risen
Run يجري ran Run
saw يقطع بمنشار sawed Sawn
Say يقول said Said
See يرى Saw Seen
Seek يبحث عن Sought Sought
Sell يبيع Sold Sold
Send يرسل Sent Sent
Set يغرب- يضع Set Set
Sew يخيط – يحيك Sewed Sewn
Shake يهز Shook Shaken
Shine يلمع Shone Shone
Shoot يطلق Shot Shot
Show يرى Showed Shown
Shrink ينكمش Shrank Shrunk
Shut يقفل Shut Shut
Sing يغني Sang Sung
Sink يغرق Sank Sunk
Sit يجلس Sat Sat
Slay يذبح Slew Slain
Sleep ينام Slept Slept
Smell يشم-يعطي رائحة Smelt Smelt
Sow يبذر Sowed Sown
Speak يتكلم Spoke Spoken
Spend يقضي- يصرف Spent Spent
Spell يتهجى Spelt Spelt
Spill يسكب- ينسكب Spilt Spilt
Spin يغزل – يدور Span Spun
Spit يبصق Spat Spat
Split يشطر Split Split
Spoil يفسد Spoilt Spoilt
Spread ينشر – ينتشر Spread Spread
Spring يقفز Sprang Sprung
Stand يقف Stood Stood
Steal يسرق Stole Stolen
Stick يلتصق ب Stuck Stuck
Sting يلدغ Stung Stung
Strike يضرب Struck Struck
Swear يقسم Swore Sworn
Sweat يعرق Sweat Sweat
Sweep يكنس Swept Swept
Swell يتورم Swelled Swollen
Swim يسبح Swam Swum
Swing يتأرجح Swung Swung
Take يأخذ Took Taken
Teach يعلم Taught Taught
Tear يمزق Tore Torn
Tell يخبر Told Told
Think يفكر – يعتقد Thought Thought
Throw يلقي Threw Thrown
Thrust يلقي – يدس Thrust Thrust
Tread يدوس Trod Trodden
Understand يفهم Understood Understood
Wear يرتدي Wore Worn
Weave ينسخ Wove Woven
Weep يبكي Wept Wept
Win يكسب Won Won
Wind يلف Wound Wound
write يكتب wrote Written











































إذا استخدمت for مع الماضي البسيط, فإنها تدل على أن الفعل انتهى

* I lived here for two years.
" since " يأتي الفعل معها في المضارع التام ويأتي بعدها ماضي بسيط أو تاريخ ( له دلالة على بداية فترة زمنية ) .
" for " يأتي الفعل معها في المضارع التام ويأتي بعدها تاريخ أو زمن ( له دلالة على وجود فترة زمنية معينة ومحددة ) .
" ago " تأتي في نهاية الجملة ويكون الفعل معها في الماضي البسيط
I visited the zoo two weeks ago.




After + past prefect + past simple




A. + present simple + present simple





Before + past simple + past prefect














No sooner ……… than …..……
Hardly …………... when ….…… ..…. حتى … لم يكد
Scarcely …….…… when ……….
تستخدم هذه الكلمات مع الماضي التام ويوضع الجزء الأول منها بين شقي الفصل ، أما إذا بدأنا بها الجملة فإن الفصل ( had ) يتقدم على الفاعل .
- He had no sooner found his keys than he lost them.
- No sooner he had found his keys than he lost them.



- يأتي بعدها الفعل مطابقا للفاعل الأول
- He, as well as I is a student.
- My sister, as well as you, does not like dates.
- They, as well as he, are British.
- I, as well as Mr.Akmal, am a teacher of English ********.
لربط جملتين مثبتتين فعلهما واحد نستخدم
…. And … too - Jane is British . Frank is British
- Jane is British and Frank is too

both ….. and … - Both Jane and Frank are British


both of them ….. - Both of them are British

لربط جملتين منفيتين فعلهما واحد نستخدم
and …. not …. either

- Ali doesn’t speak English , Maged doesn’t speak English.
- Ali doesn’t speak English and Maged doesn’t either.

neither …… nor ….. - Neither Ali nor Maged speaks English.

neither of them …… - Neither of them speaks English.


هذا التعبير يستخدم لربط جملتين كلاهما مثبت مع مراعاة تقديم الفعل على
الفاعل في الجملة الثانية ولا بد أن يكون الفعل واحد في الجملتين وعادة ما يكون فعل مساعد ، إذا لم نجد فعل مساعد نستخدم V. To be

do, does مع المضارع . did مع الماضي
• Murad is very tall.
• Ahmed is very tall.
- Murad is very tall and so is Ahmed.
and nor …. – ولا - وأيضا –وكذلك
هذا التعبير يستخدم لربط جملتين كلاهما منفي مع نفس الشروط السابقة
• Heba isn’t beautiful
• Mervat isn’t beautiful
- Heba isn’t beautiful and nor is ervat
But لكن
تربط جملتين متناقضتين إحداهما عكس الأخرى أو إحداهما منفية والأخرى مثبتة
• He is very tall.
• His wife is very short.
- He is very tall but his wife is very short.
• Ahmad can’t play football.
• Ali can play football.
- Ahmad can’t play football but Ali can.
Able to فعل ( مصدر ) + قادر على
Capable of مفعول به ( اسم ) + قادر على
• Ali is able to write the lesson.
• Ali is capable of writing the lesson.



1. Correct the following :
1. Ahmed (not go) to the cinema very often.
2. How many ********s you (speak)?
3. What time the bank (close) in Egypt?
4. I have a car but I (not use) it very often
5. Who you (meet) in the club?
6. What you (do)?
7. If you need money, why you (not get) a job?
8. I (play) the piano, but I (not) play very well.
9. I don’t understand the word deceive what it (mean)?
10. Oxygen (combine) with hydrogen to form water.
11. A car (run) with petrol.
12. There (be) 100 centimeters in a meter.
13. A triangle (have) three sides.
14. A book (be made) of paper.
15. Fire (burn).
16. People (sleep) to preserve life.
17. We (eat) to live.
18. A tape (be recorded) before it (be played).
19. Thieves (be sent) to prison.

II Ask questions using words in brackets :
1. Zaki walks to school . ( why )
2. I got very early. ( what time / usually )
3. Raghda watches television every day. ( how often )
4. Nabil works in an office. ( where )
5. People do stupid things because they are bored. (why )
6. It costs ten pounds. ( how much )
7. Mona likes chocolate. ( what )
8. He goes to school on foot. ( how )

III change into negative :
1. He teaches English.
2. I go there by bus.
3. He lives near his school.
4. We play tennis in the club.
5. They arrive early.

IV put in suitable adverbs of frequency in the blanks:
Always – usually – often – sometimes – early – never
1. The sun ……….. in the east
2. I go there once a year , but I wish I could go more ……….
3. A male bird …….. lays egg
4. It very …… rains in august here
5. She occasionally comes early , but we ……… arrives before her
6. ………. He agrees ………. He refuses

V - join the following sentences using the words in brackets :
1. we’ll wait here . the plane will arrive ( until )
2. we’ll get there . the shop will shut ( before )
3. he’ll send me a card . he’ll know if he’s got the job ( as soon as )
4. we’ll have lunch . we’ll finish the shopping ( after )
5. I’ll be on holiday . you will come to Egypt ( when )
6. We’ll stay with her . the doctor will arrive ( till )



I- correct the verb in brackets :
1. In ancient times the pharaohs (build) the pyramids as burial places.
2. Suppose I (get) there late what (will) happen?
3. While I was swimming someone (steal) my clothes and I( have to) walk home in my bathing costume.
4. She was cooking the food when the door bell (ring).
5. If he (work) hard, he would succeed.
6. We haven’t seen them since they (leave) our district.
7. Columbus (discover) America 400 years ago.
8. I (go) to the dentist yesterday but I ( forget ) all about it.
9. I (lie) in bad and (watch) TV yesterday.

II - Make sentences :
Example
Go shopping / finish the housework (after)
- I went shopping after I had finished the housework
1. Make these notes / read the book ( when )
2. Write to Areeg / put Noha to bed ( as soon as )
3. Not bark my car / find a space ( until )
4. Eat my supper / iron the shirts ( when )

The Simple Future Tense
المستقبل البسيط

I - Join the following sentences using the words in brackets :
1. We’ll wait here. The plane will arrive ( until )
2. We well get there. The shop will shut ( before )
3. He’ll send me a card. He’ll know if he’s got the job ( as soon as)
4. We’ll have lunch. We’ll finish the shopping ( after )
5. I’ll be on holiday. You will come to Egypt ( when )
6. We’ll stay with her. The doctor will arrive ( till )

II - put the verbs into the correct from using “ will “ or “ going to “ :
Example :
• A : why are you turning on the television ?
B : I’m going to ( watch ) the news
• A : Oh, I’ve just realized. I haven’t got any money.
B : don’t worry – that’s no problems. I’ll lend you some.
• A : Those clouds are very black, aren’t they ?
B : I think it is going to rain.
• 1 – A : I have got a terrible headache.
B : Have you ? Wait there and I ……. ( get ) and aspirin for you.
• 2 – A : why are you filling that bucket with water ?
B : I ……. ( wash ) the car
• 3 – A : I have decided to repaint this room
B : Oh , have you ? what color ……. ( you / paint ) it ?
• 4 – A : look ! there is smoke coming out of that house. It is on fire!
B : Good heavens ! I …… ( call ) the fire – brigade immediately
• 5 – A : the ceiling in this room doesn’t look very safe, does it ?
B : No , it looks as if it ……. ( fall ) down.
• 6 – A : we are you going ? are you going shopping?
B : yes , I ……. ( buy ) something for dinner.
• 7 – A : I can’t work out how to use this camera.
B : It is quite easy . I …… ( show ) you.
• 8 – A : what would you like to drink – tea or coffee ?
B : I …….. ( have ) tea . please.
• 9 – A : has Samir decided on what to do when he leaves school ?
B : Oh yes , every thing is planned . he …….. ( have ) a holiday for a few weeks and then he …… ( start ) a computer programming course.
• 10 – A : Did you post the letter for me ?
B : I am sorry I completely forgot . I ……. ( do ) it now.
• 11 – A : What shall we have for dinner ?
B : I don’t know I can’t make up my mind
• A : come on , hurry up ! make a decision !
B : Okay then . we ………. ( have ) chicken
• 12 – Samir : we need some bread for lunch .
Nabil : Oh, do we? I ……. ( go ) to the shop and get some . I feel like a walk.

other ways of expressing the future :
The following ways are more concerned with intention, plans, arrangement, etc. than with simple prediction.
I- A ) be to
(when the action is subject to human control, is a formal arrangement, a public duty, a public notice or formal instructions)
A – I am to see him tomorrow
B – The OPEC minister are to meet in Paris next Thursday.
C – You are to deliver these flowers before six.
D – These tablets are to be taken twice a day.
E – You are to tell him any thing. ( you must not )
F – Poison : NOT TO BE TAKEN

B ) BE about to : on the point of
A – The race is about to start
B – They are on the point of starting

C ) be due
(usually associated with transport time – tables)
a – The sleeping train is due to arrive from Aswan at 11.30.
b - the sleeping train from Aswan isn’t due till 11.30.

II – The progressive present ( present continuous )
(For planned actions as a change or exception from the routine)
(We generally use an adverb to present confusion with < action in progress > at the time of speaking)
A – I am seeing him tomorrow.
B – We are spending next winter in Australia.
C – My father is retiring in the summer. He’s getting old.

The present continuous tense
زمن المضارع المستمر

Correct the verb in brackets :
1- Please don’t make so much noise . I ( study ).
2- Look ! some body ( climb ) up that tree over there.
3- Look ! that man ( try ) to open the door of your car.
4- I ( not belong ) to apolitical party.
5- Hurry ! the bus ( come ) . I ( not want ) to mess it.
6- The River Nile ( flow ) into Mediterranean.
7- The River ( flow ) very fast today much faster than usual.
8- We usually ( grow ) vegetables in our garden but this year we ( not grow ) any ?
9- a : can you drive ?
b : no , but I ( learn ) my father ( teach ) me.
10- You can borrow my umbrella . I ( not need ) it at the moment.

II Choose the correct answer :
1- Raghda (do– does – is doing) her home work now. she usually (do– does – is doing ) it in the evening.
2- He generally (speak – speaks – is speaking) French, but ( speak – speaks – is speaking ) English now.
3- (Do you listen - are you listening- listen) to what I ( say – says – am saying) ?
4- Huda usually (is wearing– wears – wear ) a coat to go shopping, but today as a sun ( shines – shine - is shining ) she ( doesn’t wear - isn’t wearing - don’t wear ) one.
5- He generally ( come – comes - is coming ) to my office every day but today he ( visit - visits – is visiting ) his parents in the country.

The past continuous tense
زمن الماضي المستمر

I.Put the verb in the correct form , past continuous or past simple:
1- Zaki ……… ( fall ) off the ladder while he ……. ( paint ) the ceiling.
2- Last night ……. ( read ) in bed when suddenly ……… ( hear ) a scream.
3- ………… ( you / watch ) television when I phoned you ?
4- Salwa ……… ( wait ) for me when I ………… ( arrive ).
5- I ……… ( not / drive ) very fast when the accident ……..( happen ).
6- I ………. ( break ) a plate last night.
7- ….…… ( do ) the washing up . when it ..…….. ( slip ) out my hand.
8- we ……… ( not / go ) out because it ………… ( rain).
9- what ………. ( you / do ) at this time yesterday ?
10- I ……… ( see ) Hoda at the party . she ……….. ( were ) a beautiful dress.

II choose the correct answer
1- I ( find – found – have found – was finding ) the ring as I ( dig – dug – was digging ) in the garden .
2- It ( rained – was raining – raining – has rained ) when we ( are going – went – going ) out.
3- Ahmed ( was getting – getting – got – has got ) off the train while it (was going – going – went ).
4- She ( live – was living – has been living ) in Kuwait when Saddam Hussien ( invaded – invading – was invading ) it
5- He ( hurt – hurting – was hurting has hurt ) his foot while he ( climbed – climb – was climbing ) the tree.
6- When I ( arriving – was arrived – arrived ) at the house he ( still sleeping – still slept – was still sleeping – has been sleeping ).
7- She ( was talking –talked – talking ) to her neighbour when the baby (begin – began – was beginning ) to cry.
8- My friend (walk – walked – was walking) in the garden when I (meet – met – am meeting) him.

The future continuous tense

Put the verbs in brackets in the future continuous tense:
1- This time next month I (sit) on the beach.
2- When you arrived I probably (watch) TV.
3- I (wait) for you when you come out.
4- When you next see me I (wear) my new dress.
5- We have to do night duty. I (do) mine next week.
6- In a hundred years’ time people (go) to Mars for their holiday.
7- He (use) the camera this afternoon.
8- I (see) you again.
9- I’ve just remembered that I left the bathroom taps on. I expect the water (flow) down the stairs by now
10- You (need) your camera tomorrow or can I borrow it?


The present prefect tense
زمن المضارع التام

I – Correct the verb :
1- I (not see) Ahmed for three years. I wonder where he is.
2- He (not smoke) for two weeks. He (decide) to give it up.
3- The train just (depart). You are a little late.
4- This very moment I (receive) a letter from my brother.
5- Things (change) since I (be) a boy.
6- When I first (come) to this house, it (be) a very quiet area. But since then a lot of houses (be) built and it (become) very noisy.
7- This bicycle (be) in our family for 14 years. My father (use) it for the first five years. My brother (ride) it for the next five. and I (have) it for the last four.
8- Raghda : Where else you (be) since you (come) to Cairo ?
Hamida : Oh, I (be) to Zamalek , Heliopolis and Shoubra.

II – put the verb in the present prefect tense , add “since” or “for” :
1- I (wait) here …….. five o’clock.
2- I (write) letters …… the last two hours.
3- She (not wear) that dress ……….. two years.
4- I (read) two novels ………. the last two months.
5- We (study) English …….. six years.
6- I (stand) here …… half an hour , but the bus (not come) yet.
7- How often you (speak) to him recently?
“Twice ……. Last week”
8- We (sit) on the beach ……… nearly an hour.
9- I (write) four letters ………… breakfast.

III – Choose the correct answer :
1- I (am – was – have been – had been) here since 8 o’clock.
2- It (rains – rained – raining – has rained) for two years.
3- My father traveled to London two days (since – for – ago – yet).
4- I have lived in Aswan (two years ago – since two years – last two years– for two years).
5- I haven’t eaten any meat (since – for – ago) over a year.
6- She hasn’t spoken to me for (last – the last – those – coming) years.
7- We’ve been here for (yesterday – the last day – two days –days to come).
8- I haven’t seen you since (Friday – three days – a month – a long time )

The past prefect tense
زمن الماضي التام

1 – make sentences using the words in brackets :
Example
I wasn’t hungry ( I / just / have / lunch )
I wasn’t hungry . I had just had lunch
1- Ahmed wasn’t at home when I arrived . ( he / just / go / out )
2- We arrived at the cinema late (the film / already / begin)
3- They weren’t eating when I went to see them (they / just / finish / their dinner)
4- I invited Salma to dinner last night but she couldn’t come (she / already/ arrange / to do some thing else)
5- I was very pleased to see Nora again after such long time ( I / not / see / her for five years )

II – put the verb in brackets in the simple past or past prefect :
1- When he ( leave ) already , he ( realize ) he ( forget ) his wallet.
2- She ( burst ) into tears the moment he ( shut ) the door.
3- His finger ( begin ) to bleed as soon as he ( cut ) himself.
4- He ( lose ) his new watch shortly after he ( buy ) it.
5- The fire ( burn ) for three hours when the firemen ( arrive ).
6- He ( begin ) to read as soon as he ( find ) the place in his book.
7- It already ( rain ) for half an hour when we ( step ) out – into the street.
8- The patient ( die ) already by the time doctor ( arrive ).
9- When we ( get ) home , night already ( fall ).

The future prefect tense

I – Correct the verb :
1- By the next visit here he ( return ) from a world tour
2- By the end of the summer he ( teach ) as how to speak English
3- I hope it ( stop ) raining by 5 o’clock
4- I ( finish ) this work by 6 o’clock when I ( finish ) it I ( telephone ) you
5- By the end of next year I ( be ) here twenty – five years

II – Make sentences :
Example :
Pollution / eliminated ( certain )
* By 2020 pollution will have been eliminated.
1- Antarctica / developed (uncertain )
2- Floating cities / built ( very uncertain )
3- A cure for cancer / discovered ( certain )
4- Faster planes / designed ( certain )
5- More oil / found ( uncertain )
6- Cars / replaced by something better ( uncertain )


III - Make sentences :
Example: ( finish this report – Friday ) ( ring you )
* I’ll finished this report by Friday. When I’ve finished it. I’ll ring you
1- ( sell my bicycle – next week ) ( write to you )
2- ( pass my exams – the autumn ) ( go to college )
3- ( do my home work – eight o’clock ) ( help you )
4- ( mend the car – this evening ) ( take you for a drive )
5- ( cook the meal – 8 o’clock ) ( invite you to dinner )

IV - Put the verbs in brackets in the future prefect or present prefect :
1- They …….. (complete ) the new road before next year.
2- When …….. (you finish) typing that letter , please bring it to me.
3- ………… (you finish) that essay ? oh , no “ not until this evening , I’m afraid”.
4- As soon as he ……. ( eat ) , he’ll go to work.
5- I ……… ( complete ) this report by 4 o’clock.

V – Put in “ by “ , “ until “ or “ at “ :
1- I’ll have finished this composition ………… tonight.
2- I won’t write again ……… you have answered my last letter.
3- ……… Friday we will have visited ten museums and six exhibitions.
4- the train won’t leave …….. the doors are shut.
5- I’ll wait for you ………. 8 o’clock.
6- We’re staying in Rome ……… Friday.
7- The train will arrive ……….. 7.30.

VI – Choose the correct answers :
1- I shall ( finish – be finishing – have finished ) this work in 10 minutes
2- When we reach London it ( will rain – have rained – be raining )
3- This time next week I ( shall sit – be sitting – have sat ) on the beach
4- He ( will be playing – play – is playing ) the piano some more late on
5- We ( shall be – were – are being ) going to Alexandria again next week
6- She ( reads – will read – will be reading ) this book in ten days
7- This time tomorrow we ( will leave – shall leave – shall be leaving ) for Alex
8- Some friends ( come – will be coming – are coming ) to choose the new captain of the team


The present perfect continuous tense
زمن المضارع التام المستمر

1- Write the following sentences using “since” or “for”
Example :

I know Ahmed (five years)
I have known Ahmed for five years.
1- Kareem lives in Cairo. ( he was born )
2- Hassan is unemployed. (April )
3- Samira has a bad child. ( the last few days )
4- I want to go to moon. ( I was a child )
5- My brothers is studying ********s at university. ( two years )
6- Mona and Nabil are working in Alexandria. ( February )
7- My cousin is in the army. ( he was 17 )
8- They are waiting for us. ( half an hour )

II – Choose the correct answer :
1- I (have tried – have been trying – trying – am trying) to open the door since I came.
2- The driver of that car (has blown – has been blowing – blows – is blowing) his born for the last ten minutes.
3- He (has taught – has been teaching – taught – us teaching) in his school for five years.
4- They (have built – are building – have been building – build) that bridge for over a year and it still isn’t finished.
5- He (is going – has gone – has been going – is gone) to the dentist off and on for six month.
6- She (has just spent - just has spent - just spends - just spending) three weeks at her grandmother’s.
7- I (have used – used – have been using – use) this machine for ten years.
8- He (is not eating - no eating – hasn’t eaten – hasn’t been eating) for 24 hours.
9- The police have been looking for him (since – for – from – ago) 4 days.
10- No one (came – has come – has been coming – comes) to see us since we bought that house


The past prefect continuos tense

I- Put the verb into the correct form, past prefect continuos or past continuos
1- Yasser was on his hands and knees on the floor. He ………. ( look ) for his pencil.
2- We ……….. ( walk ) along the road for about 20 minutes when a car stopped and the driver offered us a lift.
3- When I arrived everyone was sitting round the table with their mouth full. They ……….. (eat)
4- When I arrived everyone was sitting round the table and talking. Their mouths were empty but their stomachs were full. They ……. ( eat ).
5- When I arrived, Nawal ……….. ( wait ) for me. She was rather annoyed with me because I was late and she ……… ( wait ) for a very long time

II – Correct the verbs use simple , continues and prefect past
1- He (give) me back the book and (thank) me for lending it to him and (say) that he (enjoy) it very much, but I (know) that he (not read) it because the bag (be) still uncut.
2- I (put) the five pound note into one of my books, but next day it (take) me long to find it because I (forget) which book I (put) it into.
3- I (think) my train (leave) at 4.30 and (be) very disappointment when I (arrive) at 4.30 and (learn) that it just (leave). I (find) later that I (use) an out – of date ti****ble.

General Objective Tests On Tenses

1- The Suez Canal (joins – is joining – will join) the East to the West.
2- I wish I (know – knew – will know) English will.
3- My father (lived – has been living – had lived) in Aswan since 1960.
4- We expect the bus (was – will be – to be) late.
5- There was (no – none – not) body waiting at the bus stop.
6- I have not seen my uncle (for - ago – since) the last two weeks.
7- Don’t get off the bus till it (stopped – will stop – stops).
8- Suppose I (get – will get – got) there late.
9- I haven’t seen the cinema (from – since – for) over a month.
10- I ( didn’t speak – have never spoken ) to a foreigner since I (have started - started) learning English.
11- After they ( left – had left ) I ( go – went – had gone ) home.
12- The light (go out – went out ) while we ( watched – watching – were watching ) television.
13- He always talks as though he (addressed – had addressed – would address) a public meeting.
14- While he (repaired – was repairing – has been repairing ) his roof, he had a bad fall.
15- He has been here (for – since – from) the last month.
16- He treated us as if we (are – were – had been) all idiots.
17- Her phone (has been ringing – is ringing – was ringing) for ten minutes. I wonder why she doesn’t answer it.
18- In a few days’ time they (will be flying – will fly – will have flown) over the North pole.
19- After I (have had - had had –had) some biscuits, I had a drink.
20- He (chewed- was chewing- had been chewing) gum, so of course he couldn’t speak properly.
21- This telegram has just arrived and the boy (waits – shall wait – is waiting) in case you want to send a reply.
22- If only I (was – were – will be) insured.
23- He usually drinks coffee, but to day be (drinks – will drink – is drinking) tea.
24- I wish I (am – was were) younger.
25- By the end of the month 5000 people (will see – will be seeing – will have seen) the exhibition.
26- He (has been speaking – was speaking – is speaking) for an hour now, I expect he’ll soon be finished.
27- I (never saw – have never seen – will never see) such a mess as this.
28- I (have explained – have been explaining – is explaining) for hour, doesn’t even one of you understand it now?
29- By this time next year I (shall save – shall be saving – shall have saved) tow hundred pounds.
30- We (are living – were living – have been living) here since 1970.
31- By the end of this week his illness (will cost – will have cost – will be costing) him five hundred pounds.
32- Where (were you – have you been – are you) all this morning? it’s nearly midday now.
33- I’ll wait until he (write – writes - will write) his next novel.
34- I’ve just remembered that I left the bathroom taps on, I expect the water (will be flowing – is flowing – has been flowing) down the stairs by now.
35- While I was talking, she (interrupted- was interrupting- had interrupted) me.
36- We (are living – were living – had been living) here since 1970.
37- I wish I (was – were – had been) at the party yesterday.
38- We went to Nagi’s house but we were too late. H e (has gone – had gone – had been) out already so we could not see him.
39- He hasn’t been here (three weeks ago – for three weeks – since three weeks).
40- When he comes to see us, he usually (brings – is bringing – will bring) something with him.
41- When he had got what he wanted he (has gone – went – had gone) home.
42- I guessed that he wouldn’t return until he (has spent – would have spent– had spent) all his money.
43- Some hospitals (are lacking – lacking – lack) good doctors.
44- I didn’t know that he (had finished – has finished – finished) already.
45- I don’t think this (requires – is requiring – require) an answer.
46- Since 1975 he (was working – has worked – has been working) at Tanta and he is still there.
47- For the past ten minutes I (was waiting – has waited – has been waiting) for my friend, but he hasn’t arrived yet.
48- The bus came after I (have been waiting - was waiting - had been waiting).
49- I wonder what we (are doing – will be doing – do) this time next year.
50- How old (were you – have you been – will you be) when you got married?

GENERAL EXERCISES ON TENSES

1- I never (see) so beautiful a garden.
2- The people (put) out the fire before the firemen (arrive).
3- The pupils (learn) English grammar now.
4- My friends just (telephone) me to say that he (not come) to night.
5- I already (remember) the old story.
6- Mary (write) an exercise now.
7- He (live) in England since 1960.
8- I (see) you yesterday, you (sit) outside a café.
9- He (take) the money after I (ask) him not to do so.
10- He usually (write) in green ink.
11- The train (leave), before I (arrive).
12- I (not see) my friend since his absence.
13- Two months ago I (meet) a very interesting gentleman while I (travel) to Aswan.
14- I am sorry I (not know) that you (leave) your book when you (call) on me last Friday.
15- I (not hear) yet whether he (pass) the examination which (be) held a month ago.
16- My brother (not feel) well lately, so yesterday he (go) to the doctor who (advise) him to take a few days rest.
17- Since I (come) back from my holiday I (work) hard as I (want) to make up for. يعوض the time I (lose).
18- While I (write) a letter my brother (telephone) me.
19- He (promise) a week ago that he (return) the books he (borrow) last month , but he (not do) so yet.
20- When they (finish) talking they shook hands and were out separately.
21- It’s high time they (mend) this road.
22- It (rain) for two days now, there’ll be a flood soon.
23- I (wait) here till he comes back.
24- I (lend) you my bicycle whenever you want it.
25- I (never see) him in my life, so of course I could not recognize him.
26- When he (return), I’ll give him the key.
27- You talk as though it (be) a small thing to leave your country forever.
28- What you (tell) the police? I (till) the truth.
29- After I (work) for sometime, I (hear) a knock at the door.
30- While he (learn) to drive, he (have) many accidents.
31- I hate driving, I’d much rather you (drive).
32- We (miss)the bus , now we shall have to walk.
33- When I looked out I found it (rain) all night.
34- Here are your shoes , he just (clean)them .
35- By next winter they (build) four houses in the field .
36- You’d better go out tomorrow because Mary (practise) the piano all day.
37- Suppose you (not know) where your next meal was coming from.
38- I still (lie) on the road when I (see) a lorry approaching.
39- If you think it over, you (see) I am right.
40- If only he (know) then that the disease was curable.
41- You (drive) all day .Let me drive now.
42- What you (see) in the corner over there?
43- We (finish) the project by the end of the year.
44- We (live) in Alexandria for many years when the event took place.
45- What do you think the children (do) when we get home?
I expect they (have) their supper.


How to make a question
كيفية تكوين السؤال



أولا: السؤال بـــ هل yes / no questions
أي السؤال الذي تكون إجابته بـ no أو yes
1) بوضع تصريفات to be أو to have قبل الفاعل
(am , is , are , was , were / have , has , had )
- Samy has got a car. -Has Samy got a car?
- He was clever. - Was he clever?
2) بتقديم الفعل على الفاعل
(will – would – can – could – shall – should – may – might-must)
# Can you carry this box ?
- yes , I can carry this box .
3) إن لم يكن في الجملة فعل مساعد أو فعل ناقص أي أن الزمن في الجملة مضارع بسيط أو ماضي بسيط فإننا نستخدم في هذه الحالة v. to do
مضارع بسيط
do
مضارع بسيط (S)
does
ماضي بسيط
did
و تقدمه على الفاعل مع ملاحظة أن الفعل يعود إلى تصريفه الأول # Did you buy a house last week ?
- yes , I bought a house last week .

ثانيا: السؤال بأدوات الاستفهام Who . question
عند السؤال بأدوات الاستفهام فإننا نتبع نفس خطوات السؤال بــ(هل)
ونضع أداة الاستفهام في بداية السؤال مع حذف الشيء الذي نسأل عنه .
-عند السؤال بـ Who نحذف الفاعل ونضع Who مكانه بدون تغيير، وكذلك الحال بالنسبة لـ What

أدوات الاستفهام Interrogative words

من : السؤال عن الفاعل العاقل
من : السؤال عن المفعول العاقل
من – أى: السؤال عن الأشخاص أو الأشياء وفى التخيير Who telephoned you?
Whom did you meet yesterday?
Which do you prefer ?
لمن: للسؤال عن الملكية
لماذا: للسؤال عن السبب (الغرض)
ما-ماذا : للسؤال عن الأشياء
متى: للسؤال عن الزمان
أين: للسؤال عن المكان
كيف: للسؤال عن الحال
كم عدد :
كم للكمية :
كم ثمن :
كم عمر :
ما طول (أشياء)
ما المدة:
ما طول (للإنسان والأشياء الضيقة)
ما ارتفاع
ما عرض
ما عمق
كم للمسافة
ما السرعة
كم للوزن
كم مرة
ما لون Whose book is it ?

Why did you travel to Benha?

What is your name ?

When do you usually get up ?

Where do you live ?
How are you ? / How can I go to the station ?

How many desks are there in your class room?

How much oil do you want ?

How much does it cost ?

How old are you?
How long is the street ?

How long does it take ?
How tall is the tree ?

How high is the building?

How wide is the car?

How deep is the well?

How far is it from Cairo to Alex?

How heavy is this fruit?

How often do you go to the cinema?

What color is it?

Ali bought six eggs at the grocer’s yesterday .
من Who “ “ “ “ “ “ “ ?
هل Did Ali buy “ “ “ “ “ ?
ماذا What did Ali buy “ “ “ “ ?
كم How many eggs did Ali buy at the “ ?
أين Where did Ali buy six eggs yesterday ?
متى When did Ali buy “ “ at the grocer’s ?


QUESTION-TAGS (or TALL PHRASES)

• Many English sentences, especially in conversation, consist of an affirmative statement followed by an interrogative negative construction
كثير من الجمل الإنجليزية، وخاصة فى المحادثات، تتكون من عبارة أو جملة مثبتة يتبعها استفهام منفى.
Ex: Yesterday was the first the month ,wasn’t it ?
Ex: They came by car, didn’t they ?
Ex: He will arrive tomorrow, won’t he ?
• Negative statements are followed by interrogative forms of the auxiliary verb.
الجمل المنفية يتبعها استفهام مثبت للفعل المساعد
Ex: You aren’t angry, are you?
Ex: Mary doesn’t dance well, does she?

Study the following:
Ex: I’m your favorite, aren’t I?
Ex: Let’s go out for a walk, shall we ?
Ex: Open the door, will you?

Make questions by using question word :
1- The village is supplied with electricity.
2- He showed me the way to the station.
3- As you have written this page badly you must write it again.
4- It is not wise to drink this water as it is not boiled.
5- I had lent it to him before you met me yesterday.
6- I sent my coat back to the tailor.
7- My father has traveled to England.
8- I cannot teach Greek.
9- I met my friend Taha yesterday.
10- He cannot recognize objects as he is blind.
11- It was built in 1930.
12- Much progress has been made lately.
13- He is living in a hotel now.
14- He has never gone to school since he lost his father.
15- He doesn’t know how to lead a happy life.
16- America was discovered by Columbus.
17- Yesterday I bought a new watch.
18- Spaceships travel to the moon.
19- You can get in touch with other people by means of the telephone.
20- You will see her there.
21- He won the top prize.
22- She loves her country very much.
23- We save money for time of need.
24- The moon lights our way at night.
25- The Ancient Egyptians were great people.
26- Unity is strength.
27- Palestine will never be forgotten.
28- He lost a great deal of money.
29- We are ready to sacrifice our lives for the sake of our dear land.
30- The Arab countries own great amounts of petroleum.

Add suitable question-tags (tail-phrases):
1- It’s too cold today …………………………..………?
2- Jack likes ice-cream, …………………….…………?
3- We are learning fast ,……………………………….?
4- You don’t like cheese ,…………………………..…?
5- We never eat meat,…………………………………?
6- I make all my own dresses,…………………………?
7- These boys haven’t been here very long,…………..?
8- We must try hard to succeed,………………………?
9- You can speak English well,………………………?
10- She doesn’t see well,……………………………..?
11- John is a good footballer,…………………………?
12- Let’s help him,…………………………………...?
13- Tom won’t be late,……………………………….?
14- It’s very expensive,……………………………….?
15- It’s a beautiful day,……………………………….?
16- It’s he works very hard,………………………….?
17- He hasn’t any money,……………………………?
18- Tom could help you,……………………………..?
19- Shut the window,…………………………………?
20- I am very tired,…………………………………..?

Negation النفي

1) الأفعال المساعدة (am , is , are , was , were) to Be/
(have , has , had) to Have
الأفعال الناقصة shall, should, will, would, can, could, may , might, must
تنفي هذه الأفعال بوضع not بعدها
I have a car I have not a car.
2) الأفعال الأساسية to Do , main verbs.
1) إذا كان الفعل مضارع ينفى بوضع don’t قبله
2) إذا كان الفعل مضارع به s ينفى بوضع doesn’t قبله مع حذف s
3) إذا كان الفعل ماضي ينفى بوضع didn’t قبله مع رجوع الفعل لأصله
* She bought meat . She didn’t buy meat.
usually – sometimes – often – always – rarely – never 4)
تنفى هذه الكلمات بوضع never مكانها
* He usually eats beans in the morning.
He never eats beans in the morning.
some one- some thing – some body – some where 5)
تنفى some بوضع any بدلا منها مع نفي الفعل
أو تنفى بوضع no بدلا منها مع ثبات الفعل
* She gave her mother something.
She didn’t give her mother any thing.
She gave her mother nothing.
6) used to تنفى بـ used not to - didn’t use to
* He used to drink tea at 5:00.
He used not to drink tea at 5:00.
He didn’t use to drink tea at 5:00.
7) Both………and – either ……or
تنفى بـ Neither ………nor
لاحظ الجمع * Both Ali and I are teachers.
Neither Ali nor I is a teacher.
8) and so تنفى بـ and nor مع نفي الفعل
* She is divorced مطلقة and so is her sister.
She isn’t divorced and nor is her sister.
مع نفى الفعل . Yet تنفى بـ Already – just
* They have already started the race .
-They haven’t started the race yet .
* She has just finished cooking .
-She has not finished cooking yet .

not as …….as عند النفي as …….as 9)
not so …………..as أو
* He is as clever as his friend .
-He is not as clever as his friend .
-He is not so clever as his friend .
مع نفى الفعل either تنفى بـtoo أو also*10)
go to the theater too .
- They will not go to the theater either.

Change the following sentences into negative :
1- The sick child needs a doctor.
2- Horses sleep in stables at night.
3- There is some butter in the disk.
4- All the boys were ready to begin the lesson
5- Give me some meat, please.
6- There is salt in my soup.
7- She tells lies.
8- I need help.
9- They talk to somebody during the lesson.
10-I eat something between meals.
11-Mary plays either the violin or the piano.
12-She can cook very well.
13-The answer is either right or wrong.
14-Both Aly and his brother are careless.
15-Both of the boys speak good English.
16-i have always seen such a beautiful picture.
17-We have always finished our exercises so quickly.
18-The team always plays better than when you conduct it.
19-If you go to Alexandria, so shall I.
20-Every girl played music.
21-We always fulfil our promise.
22-He bought some books.
23-Everyone felt happy.
24-He sold me some pencils.
25-We have sugar.


Comparison of Adjectives مقارنة الصفات

* الصفة تصف الاسم وتأتى قبله
* من الممكن أن تأتى بعد v. to be كخبر *He is poor
* من الممكن أن تأتى الصفة بعد become - go
- They become rich . - The milk went bad .
- They are clever . الصفة لا تجمع
الصفة ذات المقطع الواحد
- He is a short man . عندما نصف شخص أو شيء
* عند المقارنة بين اثنين تكون القاعدة هي إضافة er للصفة + than
Ahmed is shorter than Mohammed.
* إذا انتهت الصفة بحرف Y مسبوقة بحرف ساكن تصبح ier
* Marwa is happier than Mona.
* إذا انتهت الصفة بحرف ساكن مسبوق بحرف متحرك تضعف الحرف الساكن
* Aswan is hotter than Cairo.
* عندما تكون الصفة بنفس القدر عند المقارنة تستخدم
as + adj. + as
Amal is as beautiful as the moon.
* عند المقارنة بين أكثر من اثنين تكون القاعدة هي إضافة est إلى نهاية الصفة وتسبق الصفة the
* Magdy is the tallest boy in our school.
* Our house is the biggest one in the street.
الصفة ذات المقطعين أو أكثر
* عندما نصف شخص أو شيء * Mona is a beautiful girl.
* عند المقارنة بين اثنين تكون القاعدة هي more + adj. + than
* Dalia is more beautiful than Mona.
* عند المقارنة بين أكثر من اثنين تكون القاعدة هي : the most + adj
* Amal is the most beautiful girl in the school.


الصفات الشاذة
Positive
الصفة العادية Comparative
صفة المقارنة Superlative
التفضيل
good Better than The best
bad Worse than The worst
many More than The most
much More than The most
some Less than The least
little Less than The least
Farther than مسافة The farthest
Further than مسافة زمن The furthest

* بعد الصفة للأحسن ( صيغة التفضيل القصور) غالبا ما تستعمل in للأماكن of للأشخاص
* Nagy is the best boy in the class.
* Nabil is the best of the three boys.
طريقة الاختيار للصفات في الاختبارات
* قبل الأقواس (a , an , very , so , too ) نختار الصفة ذاتها.
* قبل وبعد الأقواس (as ) نختار الصفة ذاتها.
* قبل وبعد الأقواس ( اسم ) نختار الصفة التي بها more than أو er than.
* بعد الأقواس ( than ) نختار الصفة التي بها more أو er.
* قبل الأقواس (the ) نختار الصفة التي بها most أو est.
Correct the following adjectives
1- It is cool today , but it was ( cool ) yesterday.
2- This test is ( easy ) then that one
3- This book is expensive, but that one is (expensive ).
4- Your book case is ( large) than mine.
5- This is the ( interesting ) book I have ever read.
6- Suzy is ( beautiful) than her sister.
7- She is the ( thin ) girl in class.
8- The ( soon) he comes, the better.
9- The ( less ) effort makes him feel tired.
10- She is not ( intelligent ) as we think.
11- America is the ( rich) country in the world.
12- His health is ( bad ) than it was last year.
13- The weather today is ( good ) than it was yesterday.
14- He is ( selfish ) as his brother.
15- He is regarded the ( good ) writer in Egypt.
16- She is ( pretty ) than Samia.
17- This is the ( exciting ) novel I have ever read.
18- He ate ( much ) food than I.
19- He ran ( quickly) as he could.
20- The ( early ) he gets up, the better.

Choose the correct words in brackets.
1- John is ( tall – taller – tallest ) than either of his brothers.
2- He is the ( tall – taller – tallest ) of the three brothers.
3- Roses have a ( sweet – sweeter – sweetest) smell than all the flowers.
4- A diamond is a ( hard – harder- hardest ) stone.
5- Jane is ( pretty- prettier- prettiest) than her two sisters.
6- London is ( large – larger – largest) than any other capital in Europe.
7- John’s handwriting is bad but mine is ( worse- worst- the worst) .
8- Some jobs are ( dangerous- more dangerous- most dangerous ) than other.
9- The patient feels a little ( good – better – best ) today.
10- Saturday is the ( tiring – more tiring – most tiring ) day of the week.
11- Old Mrs. Smith is one of the ( kind – kinder- kindest ) women in the town.
12- The police have received ( far – further – furthest ) information about the crime.
13- He went as white ( to – as – like ) a sheet with fear.
14- He is taller ( as – for than ) his brother.
15- A pony isn’t so large ( as – to – than ) a horse.
16- She is ( pretty ) than Samia.
17- This is the ( exciting) novel I have ever read.
18- He ate ( much ) food than I.
19- He ran ( quickly ) as he could.
20- The ( early) he gets up, the better.

Choose the correct words in brackets:
1- John is ( tall-taller-tallest) than either of his brothers.
2- He is the (tall-taller-tallest) of the three brothers.
3- Roses have a ( sweet- sweeter- sweetest) smell than all the flowers.
4- A diamond is a ( hard – harder- hardest) stone.
5- Jane is ( pretty – prettier- prettiest) than her two sisters.
6- London is ( large- larger- largest)than any other capital in Europe.
7- John’s handwriting is bad but mine is ( worse- worst- the worst).
8- Some jobs are ( dangerous – more dangerous- most dangerous) than others.
9- The patient feels a little ( good – better –best ) today.
10- Saturday is the ( tiring – more tiring – most tiring ) day.
11- Old Mrs. Smith is one of the ( kind – kinder – kindest) women in the town.
12- The police have received ( far – further – furthest) information about the crime.
13- He went as white ( to – as- like ) a sheet with fear.
14- He is taller ( as- for – than ) his brother.
15- A pony isn’t so large ( as- to – than ) a horse.


CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS

الجمل الشرطية

IF CLOUSE Independent clause Time
meant Kind of
condition
Type 1 Present simple Future simple future probable
If he studies hard, he will succeed.
Type 2 Past simple Would/should + inf. Present or future. improbable
If he studied hard, he would ( might)succeed.
Type 3 Past prefect Would/should + have + p.p past Impossible or unfulfilled
If he had studied hard, he would have succeeded.
* تستعمل unless أيضا مثل Ifفي ربط الجمل الشرطية If clause بالجمل الرئيسية المتبوعة principal clause ، وهي تساوي If not .
*القواعد الخاصة مع If هي نفس القواعد المستخدمة مع unless
- If she had not made that mistake, she would have passed the examination.
- Unless she had made that mistake, she ………………………..
في الحالة الثالثة عندما نشير إلى شيء حدث في الماضي ولكن تأثيره أو نتيجته واضحة الأن، من الممكن استخدام would + be بدلا من would + have + التصريف الثالث.
* If he had saved the money , he would be happy now.

Choose the correct answer:
1- If you had told the doctor you were in pain, you ( were given – will be given –had been given- would have been given) an injection before.
2- If you stuck another stamp on this letter, it (would have been sent- would be sent – would be sending- was sent) by air.
3- Had the employment agency had your address, you ( would inform- would have been informed-would be informing)earlier.
4- Had you sent me a letter earlier, I (shall reserve- would reserve- should have reserved- shall reserve) a room for you.
5- He ( has been operated on – would have been operated on – will be operated on – had operated on ) if the doctor thinks it is necessary.
6- He ( learned – had learned- would have learned- would learn) more if you had agreed to help him.
7- If we ( put up – had put up – have put up – were putting up) the tent, we wouldn’t have got wet.
8- Unless they improved the roads, trade ( didn’t flourish- wouldn’t flourish- won’t flourish – wouldn’t have flourished).
9- If the Russian winter had not been so severe, Napoleon ( had- had had – might have had- might have) more success in 1812.
10- Were he to come now , he ( will find - would find- would have found- found ) me.
11- Had he money, he ( will – would – may ) help me.
12- Had he kept his word, he ( would have- will have – may have ) helped him.
13- Had she traveled to Tanta, she ( will stay – would stay- might stay- would have stayed) there.
14- Had he studied his lessons, he ( would – may – can ) have understood everything.
15- Were I in his place, I ( will do – would do – would have done) the same thing.
16- Unless he had done his best, he ( will have – would have – may have) succeeded.
17- Had he done his best, he ( will have – would have – may have) managed to do it.
18- If he does not come early, he ( will punish-will be punished- would be punished).
19- Unless I had warned him, he (will fall- would fall- would had fallen) in the pitch.
20- If aeroplanes had not been invented, traveling ( would be – might be – would have been ) difficult.

ملاحظات هامة
لاحظ الآتي جيدا وستجده مشروحا بالتفصيل في جزء ( clause, phrase ) .
1. a) Instead of “ If the little boy failed ( or were to fail )” we may use
((Were the little boy to fail)).
b) Instead of “ If it rains ( or rained ) “ we may use
((Should it rain.))
c) Instead of “ If it had rained “ we may use ( Had it rained))
d) Instead of “ If you follow my advice” we may say
((Provided that – Provided – Providing – Providing that بشرط أن you follow)) or (On condition that you follow.))
2. “Whether – or” are used to introduce alternative conditions.
Ex. Whether he goes or stays we shall remain.
3.Unless = If not
Ex. Unless he paid the money, he would be imprisoned.
4. “In case of “ or ” In the event of “can be used to change a clause of condition ( in the affirmative) في حالة المثبت into a phrase.
Ex. If he worked hard, he would succeed.
In case of working hard, he would succeed.
5. “ Without ”, “But for ” can be used to change a clause of condition (in the negative) في حالة النفي into a phrase .
Ex. -If he had not helped us, we should have drowned.
-Without (But for) his help, we should have drowned.
Also: -Without (but for) helping us, we should have drowned.

6. * If it isn’t for…………….مع الحالة الأولى
** If it weren’t for…………… مع الحالة الثانية
*** If it hadn’t been for…………..مع الحالة الثالثة

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses:
1. If I see hem, I (give) him a lift.
2. If I had a typewriter,. I (type) it myself.
3. If I had known that you were in hospital, I (visit) you.
4. If you go to Paris, where you (stay) ?
5. The flight might be cancelled if the fog (get) thick.
6. If the milkman (come), tell him to leave two pints.
7. Unless they turn that radio off, I (go) mad.
8. We’ll have a long way to walk if we (run) out of petrol here.

Active & Passive Voice المبنى للمعلوم والمبنى للمجهول

عند بناء الجملة الخبرية للمجهول نتبع الآتي :
1) الفاعل يتأخر إلى آخر الجملة مسبوقا بكلمة by ويمكن حذفه
2) لمفعول به يتقدم إلى أول الجملة ليصبح فاعلا.
3) تأتى بتصريف v. To Be فى نفس زمن الجملة ومناسبا للفاعل الجديد
4) نضع الفعل الأصلى للجملة فى التصريف الثالث .
Mona plays tennis. Tennis is played by Mona.
- Tennis is played by Mona.
V. To Be تصريفات

مضارع بسيط am – is – are
في الأزمنة البسيطة ماضي بسيط was - were
Am
مستقبل بسيط is + going to + be / will be/ shall be
are
في الأزمنة المستمرة مضارع مستمر am being – is being – are being
ماضي مستمر was being- were being
في الأزمنة التامة مضارع تام have been – has been
ماضي تام had been
مع الأفعال الناقصة be + الفعل الناقص

ACTIVE VOICE & PASSIVE VOICE
tense Active Voice Passive Voice
Present Simple Write, writes Is or are written
Past simple wrote Was or were written
Future simple Will ( or shall) write Will be or shall be written
Present continuous Is ( am, are) writing Is ( are ) being written
Past continuous Was ( were ) writing Was ( were) being written
Future continuous Shall ( will) be writing Not used
Present perfect Has ( have) written Has (have)been written
Past perfect Had written Had been written.
Future perfect Will have written Will have been written.
Present perf. continuous Has ( have) been written Not used
Past perf. continuous Had been writing Not used
Future perf. continuous Will have been writing Not used

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

TENSE SIMPLE CONTINUOUS PERFECT
PRESENT AM AM HAS + p.p
IS IS + BEING + BEEN
ARE ARE HAVE
PAST WAS WAS HAD + p.p
+BEING +
WERE WERE BEEN
FUTURE DEFECTIVE VERBS WILL HAVE + BEEN
SHALL HAVE + BEEN + p.p

( 1 ) SIMPLE TENSES

1 – They clean the houses - The houses are cleaned by them.
2 – He drank tea. – Tea was drunk by him.
3 – He will meet his friends. – They will be met by him.
4 – She doesn’t buy book. – Books are not bought by her.

( 2 ) CONTINUOUS TENSES

1 – He is eating an apple. – An apple is being eaten by him.
2 – She was cooking fatta. – Fatta was being *****d by her.
3 – He was making baskets. – Baskets were being made by him.

( 3 ) PERSENT PERFECT

1- He has found a pen. – A pen has been found by him.
2- They have made rings. – Rings have been made by them.

( 4 ) DEFECTIVE FERBS

1- They may break the ********– The window may be broken by him.
2- She can do it. - It can be done by her.


( 5 ) SENTENCE WITH TWO OBJECTS.

1- I gave her money . She was given money (by me )
2- I gave her money . (or) money was given to her (by me)
3- He teaches us ENGLISH. We are taught English (by him)

(6) Preposition after verbs

1- He eats with a spoon. –A spoon is eaten with .
2- They speak well of her . –She is well spoken of .

(7) OTHER DIFFICULT FORMS

1- He kicked the ball quickly . – The ball was quickly kicked .
2- No body met me . – I was not met by anyone .
3- Please , give him the book . – Please , let him be given the book
4- People say that he is brave . – It is said that he is brave .
( or ) He is said to be brave.
5- He let her cheat him . – He let himself be cheated.
6- Don’t let people hear you . – Don’t let yourself be heard .
7- I hate people laughing at me . – I hate being laughed at .

(8) QUESTIONS

1- When did Sami write the letter ? - Sami wrote the letter .
- the letter was written by him .
* When was the letter written? 2- Do you meet these boys ? - I meet these boys .
- these boys are met by me .
* Are these boys met by you?

3- Who broke the ******** * by whom was the window broken?

GENERAL EXERCISE ON ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE.

Change the active form into the passive form and vice versa.
1- The servant was beating the carpet.
2- The child was run over by a motor-car.
3- The rooms are kept clean.
4- I was given a present.
5- He has been bitten by a snake.
6- Did Aly eat all the apples?
7- Was he honoured last year?
8- He is putting the books in the drawer.
9- The thief was caught.
10- He will be punished for disobedience.
11- Aly eats two apples .
12- Aly will eat an apple.
13- Aly ate an apple.
14- Ali has eaten too many apples.
15- Ali had eaten all the apples.
16- Aly is eating an apple.
17- Aly was eating apples.
18- Aly has eaten an apple.
19- Aly had eaten an apple.
20- Someone stole my fountain pen yesterday.
21- A message will be sent immediately.
22- It could not be used by them.
23- The meal has been prepared by my sister .
24- The man was being questioned by the police.
25- He had lost a large some of money.
26- Somebody had cleaned my shoes.
27- We use this room only on special occasions.
28- Someone switched on a light and opened the door.
29- Why didn’t they mend the roof before it fell in ?
30- They are pulling down the old cinema.
31- Someone will serve *******ments .
32- Who wrote it?
33- They showed her the easiest way to do it.
34- Did the idea interest you ?
35- Who did it?
36- The government has called out troops.
37- They have been killed by criminals.
38- He is said to be a spy.
39- We called in the police.
40- They built the school outside the town.
41- The doctor has given him some medicine.
42- Many people read the writer’s books.
43- A car will take her home after the party.
44- They gave the children presents.
45- These boys have done some good work.
46- They have taken the hens to the market.
47- A bus will take the workers home in the evening.
48- Someone has *****d this meal well.
49- You can see the river from our house.
50- They will send these bicycles abroad.
51- Smoke filled the room.
52- We have sent the children into the garden.
53- Someone has taken all the flowers from the garden.
54- A man will bring the bread to your house.
55- Nader wrote this letter.
56- They have made these bicycles in the factory.
57- They are building new houses outside the town.
58- A careless driver was driving this car.
59- A good teacher will give these lessons.
60- They make lots of cars in France.
61- Someone left a cigarette on the table.
62- A kind friend gave her that new handbag.
63- Mrs. Sawsan invited her to the party.
64- A friend gave me this gold ring.
65- Someone has cut the grass in the garden.
66- The car took them to the theatre.
67- Mr. Jones has given a present to the children.
68- People will remember this play for a long time.
69- Did Samy break this window?
70- Is Mr. Nokes doing this work?
71- Has anyone found my pen?
72- Has anyone eaten those chocolates?
73- A friend of mine wrote this letter to me.
74- Some one left the light on all night.
75- They opened a new cinema in Tanta last week.
76- People will invite you to their homes.
77- They will paint this bicycle red .
78- Someone has washed these curtains since last Monday.
79- They have taken the butter and eggs to the market.
80- They were cleaning all the carpets.
81- Someone was selling all the houses in the street.
82- Someone has eaten all the apples.
83- They asked him to speak about Egypt.
84- Someone built this castle many centuries ago.
85- You mustn’t cut pages out of the book.
86- Someone married her when she was only eighteen.
87- Did anyone teach you English?
88- They refused his offer of help.
89- Many flowers were broken by the heavy rain.
90- He was told the news by someone.
91- The children were left at home.
92- The workers had been given a week’s holiday by the manager.
93- She will be told the good news by her brother.
94- We were invited to the party by our friend Sue.
95- Many new houses have been built.
96- This book was written many centuries ago by Shakespeare.
97- This cake was made by my mother.
98- Tom has taken a photograph of Susan.
99- We have seen a lot of interesting places.

THE CAUSATIVE “HAVE”

المبني للمجهول باستخدام "Have" – الفعل المنسوب لغير مذكور.
• وعادة ما يأتي الفعل السببي مع الأفعال الآتية :
Clean, print, polish, cut, service, repair, deliver, decorate, press.

Noun المستفيد + v. To Have + object + p. p

* The mechanic repaired my car.
- I had my car repaired.

Noun المستفيد + v. To Have + object (ind.) + inf. + object (dir)

* The mechanic repaired my car.
- I had the mechanic repair my car.

** The maid has cleaned my room.
- I have had my room cleaned.
- I have had the maid clean my room.


DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
REPORTED SPEECH
Statement الجملة الخبرية
* Subject + verb + ……….
الجملة الخبرية هي الجملة التي ليست أمرية أو استفهامية . ولتحويل الجملة الخبرية – الكلام المباشر إلى غير مباشر تتبع الخطوات التالية
1- إذا كان فعل القول ماضيا فإن said to تحول إلى told أما said فقط تظل كما هي.
2- تحذف الأقواس ونضع كلمة that بدلا منها كأداة ربط ( ويمكن الاستغناء عنها ) ويلزم وضعها إذا جاءت بعد أي فعل آخر مثل
protest, point to , object, explain, complain…….
3- تحول الضمائر سواء في حالة الفاعل أو المفعول به أو الملكية بحيث تعود على الفاعل والمفعول خارج الأقواس حسب المعنى ، وغالبا ما تكون كالآتي
D. Ind. فاعل D. Ind. مفعول D. Ind. ملكية
I He , she Me Him, her My Her, his
we They Us Them Your My, his, her
He He You Me, him Our Their
she she him him his His

4- تحول الأزمنة كالآتي ( يُرفع الفعل درجة ):
direct Indirect
Present simple Past simple
Present continuous Past continuous
Present perfect Past perfect
Past simple Past perfect
Was, were Had been
Shall, will Should, would
Can Could
Must Must, had to


تحول بعض الكلمات كالآتي
Direct Indirect
this That
these Those
here There
now Then
today That day
tonight That night
tomorrow The next day
Tomorrow morning The next morning
Next week, month The following week, month
yesterday The day before
Last night The night before
Ago Before
Come Go
The day before yesterday Two days before
The day after tomorrow In two days time
• He said to me , “ I went to the zoo yesterday”.
- He told me (that) he had gone to the zoo the day before.
• She said, “ this was my house”.
- She said (that) that had been her house.
• He said “I had a car” .
- He said (that) he had had a car .
• He said to her “ I’m here to help you .”
- He told here that he was there to help her .
ملاحظات هامة جداً على الجملة الخبرية :
• She says ,” I usually visit my grand ma every week “.
- She says (that) she usually visits her grand ma every week .
• إذا كان فعل القول فى زمن المضارع البسيط أو المستقبل البسيط فإن الأزمنة والظروف وأسماء الإشارة لا تتغير فى التحويل، ويكون التغيير فى الضمائر فقط .
• لا تتغير الأزمنة إذا كان الفعل يعبر عن حقيقة مطلقة أو حدث منذ فترة قصيرة جدا أو أن الحدث دائم ومتكرر .
* He said “ the earth is round “ .
- He said (that) the earth is round .
• He said to me “I’m glad to meet you.”
……………………………………………………………………….
- She told her friend (that she gets up at 6 o’clock every morning.
* إذا كان الكلام المباشر يحتوي على جملتين خبريتين تربطهما معاً بالعبارة and ، added that أو and that
• Tamer said “I know that it is wrong” “I shall try to do it better tomorrow .”
- Tamer said (that) he know that it was wrong and added that he would try to do it better the next day .
• إذا كان المخاطب داخل الأقواس فانه يوضع بعد فعل القول عند التحويل .
وإذا جاءت جملة القول في آخر الجملة الخبرية على صورة said he أو he said فإننا نبدأ بها الجملة عند التحويل .
• “ I want to dine with you Shaimaa .”, said Faten .
- Faten told Shaimaa that she wanted to dine with her .
* إذا بدأت جملة الحديث المباشر بـyes فإننا نحولها إلى agreed أو answered in affirmative بدلا من (said ) وإذا بدأت بـ no فإننا نحولsaid إلى refused أو answered in the negative
• Mai said , “ yes , this is Marwa’s house .”
- Mai answered in affirmative ( that ) that was Marwa’s house .
• Amal said, “No, I’m sorry”.
- Amal answered in the negative (that) she was Sorry .
* إذا كانت جملة الحديث المباشر على صورة تحية مثل( Good morning) فإنsaid تحول إلى wished
• Haitham said, "Good morning”
Haitham wished me good morning .
• إذا جاءت فى جملة الحديث المباشر كلمة وداع مثل “Good bye” فإنsaid تحول إلى bade ( أى الماضي من bid يودع )
* Amany said to Abla , “Good bye”. “I shall see you tomorrow”.
-Amany bade Abla good bye and added that she would see her the following day .
• إذا جاءت العبارةcome here فى الكلام المباشر تحول إلىgo there فى الكلام الغير مباشر.
• She said to me ,” I shall come here tomorrow “.
- She told me (that) she would go there the next day .
• إذا جاءت كلمة شكر فى الكلام المباشر تحول said إلى thanked
• Bushra said to me ,” Thank you very much”.
- Bushra thanked me very much .
• التعبيرات الآتية لا تتغير عند التحويل إلى الكلام الغير مباشر.
should like would like had better
• He said to me , “ you’d better get up early”
• He advised me that I’d better get early.

كيفية تحويل الكلام الغير مباشر إلى الكلام المباشر في الجملة الخبرية
1- تحول told إلى .said to
2- نحذف that إن وجدت ونضع بدلا منها الفاصلة والأقواس .
3- نغير الضمائر من الغائب إلى المتكلم والمخاطب حسب المعنى .
4- نغير الأزمنة من الماضي التام إلى الماضي البسيط أو من الماضي البسيط إلى المضارع البسيط .
5- تراعى الظروف وأدوات الإشارة التي في الجدول كل فيما يقابله.
6- يجب مراعاة الحالات الخاصة والأفعال التي لا تتغير.
• She told her mother that she had gone to the zoo with a friend of hers.
- She said to her mother , “ I went to the zoo with a friend of mine”.
• Ahmed told Magda that he wished he knew.
- Ahmed said to Magda ,”I wish I knew”.

2- Questions الأسئلة - الجملة الاستفهامية
* لتحويل السؤال إلى Indirect اتبع الآتي:
1- خارج الأقواس Indirect Direct
say ask, enquire , want to know
shall say shall ask, shall enquire
said, said to asked, enquired
asked wanted to know
2- إذا كان السؤال داخل الأقواس بـ " هل " فعند التحويل تحذف الأقواس ونربط بـ whether أو If وتحذف do, does , did .
3- أما إذا كان السؤال بأداة استفهام فإننا نحذف الأقواس وتوضع أداة استفهام كما هي ( تعتبر أداة ربط )
4- يحول السؤال إلى جملة خبرية بمعنى أن يوضع الفاعل قبل الفعل .
5- نتبع إجراءات وجداول التحويل كما سبق ذكرها في الجملة الخبرية
• Ali said to his friend , “ why were you absent yesterday?”, ”Were you ill ?”
- Ali asked his friend why he had been absent the day before and if he had been ill.
• I said to Dalya , “ don’t you believe this story?”
- I asked Dalya if she didn’t believe that story.
6- إذا وجدت yes أو No في الكلام المباشر ردا على سؤال بالنفي أو الإثبات فإننا نردها إلى عبارتها في الجملة الخبرية
• Ahmed said to me ,” Did you write the letter?” I replied, ”yes” / “No”
- Ahmed asked me if I had written the letter and I replied that I had. / but I replied I hadn’t.

• هناك أسئلة تعبر عن الطلب مثل:

• “ What shall I say mother ?” she said.
• She asked her mother what she would say.

• هناك أسئلة تعبر عن الغرض
• He said , “ shall I bring you a drink?”
• He offered to bring me a drink.

• هناك أسئلة تعبر عن الاقتراح:
• He said, “ shall we meet at the club?”
• He suggested meeting at the club.
لاحظ جيدا هذه الحالات الخاصة :
* He said,” would you mind opening the window?”
He asked me wanted me to open the ********
* He said , “ would you like to have a drink ?”
He suggested having a drink.
* She said to her friend, “ would you like some tea?”
She offered her friend some tea.
* “What about tea?” - He suggested tea.
* “ What about going to the cinema tonight?” , he said.
He suggested going to the cinema that night.
* “ Why don’t you ask him?” she said.
She suggested asking him.
* “Could I have a cup of tea?” she said.
She asked for a cup of tea.
* “Could you give me a pen, please?” he said.
He asked me to give him a pen.
“ Shall we be in time?” said he.
He wandered if they would be in time.

3- Command and Request
الأمر والطلب
1- يحول فعل الأمر كالآتي:
الأمر ordered - التأدب asked - التساوي told - التحذير warned - النصيحة advised – التوسل begged – prayed للتذكير reminded - للتهديد threatened للرغبة wanted
2- تحذف الأقواس وتربط ب to + inf. في الإثبات أو not to + inf. في النفي.
3- تحول الضمائر والأزمنة والظروف كما سبق شرحها.
* Ali said to me , “ turn on the light.”
Ali told me to turn on the light.
* He said to me ,” Don’t touch this wire.”
He warned me not to touch that wire.
* She said, “ Remember to thank Mr. Akmal.
She reminded him to thank Mr. Akmal.
ملاحظات هامة في الجملة الأمرية:
* “ Come with me.” Said he.
He suggested that I should go with him.
or, He suggested (my) going with him.
* She said, “ Don’t make so much noise.”
-She suggested that I shouldn’t make so much noise.
* He said, “ Let’s go to the mosque.” ( suggestion) اقتراح
- He suggested that we should go to mosque.
* I said,“ let him come with us, mother.” ( allowing ) سماح
- I asked my mother to let him go with us.
* “ Let’s sell the house “ Mr. Ali said “ lets not “ said Hanna
- Mr. Ali suggested selling the house but Hanna was against it
* “ Go on , Nagi , hit him “ he said
- She urged Nagi to hit the other boy.

 4 – Exclamation التعجب 
1 – حول فعل القول إلى exclaimed مضافا إليها بعض العبارات لتوضيح المعنى مثل : أسف with sorrow - فرح with joy - دهشة with surprise - ندم with regret - غضبwith anger - إعجاب with admiration
2 – اتبع نفس خطوات التحويل السابقة ذكرها في الجملة الخبرية
* The tourist said “ what a great pyramid!”
The tourist exclaimed with admiration that the pyramid is very great
* The boys said “ hurrah! We have won the match”.
The boys exclaimed with joy that they had won the match
* He shouted “ what a mistake I have made”.
He exclaimed with regret that he had made a mistake
* The merchant said “ Alas I have lost all my wealth.”
The merchant exclaimed with sorrow that he had lost all his wealth.
لاحظ أن الكلمات الآتية الدالة على التعجب تحذف عند التحويل
يا خسارة ، واأسفاه Alas , وافرحتاه Hurrah How, Oh, What,
* Do as shown in brackets :
1- “I’ll for yet the money if I marry your daughter “. Pedro said to him.
( Reported speech )
2- He told me he speaks English . ( Begin : “He said ….” ) .
3- He said to her, “ would you like to visit me at seven?”
( Reported speech )
4- She said to him just now , “ I haven’t replied to this letter .”
( Reported speech )
5- He said just now , “ I’m going to buy a new car”
( Indirect )
6- “ Shall we wait till the others come ? “
( Begin with , She wanted to know …….. )
7- “ Eat up your dinner at once or I’ll punish you . ( Reported )

GENERAL EXERCISES ON REPORTED SPEECH

Do as shown in brackets :
1. He said to her , “ you haven’t got much time”.
( Begin with : He told her …… )
2. Yesterday he said to her , “ You haven’t got much time”.
( Change into Reported speech )
3. Mother always says she is tired.
( Give the actual words )
4. My friends think car is newer than mine .
( What do they actually say ?)
5. I went to the cinema with my uncle .
( Begin with : He said that ……..)
6. “ Will this medicine cure they baby’s spots ?”
( Rewrite beginning with : I want to know ……)
7. “ Shall we have time to finish ?”( Begin with : They wondered …….)
8. Shall we wait till the others come ? ( Begin with : They wanted to know ……..)

9. He said to his friend, “ Would you like to go to the club with me?”
( change into reported speech )
10. “ Why didn’t you watch last night’s film on television “ I said to him .
( Begin with : I asked him ……….)
11. His mother said to him, “ Have you eaten all your food?“
( Begin with : His mother asked him ……….)
12. The inspector asked him if he always caught such an early train.
(Begin with : The inspector said to him ………..)
13. She said to her friend , “ Make haste . don’t forget your bag “
(Begin with : She asked her friend ……….)
14. He said to me . “ I can’t do it now , but I’ll finish it tomorrow “
( Begin with : He told me …………)
15. “ Shall we have dinner somewhere after the theater ? “ said Ahmed .
( Begin with : Ahmed suggested ………..)
16. “ Where will you be tomorrow in case I had to ring you ? “ I said
( Begin with : I asked …………..)
17. “ Shall I ever see hem again ? “ she said .
( Begin with : She wondered ………….)
18. “ Would you mind getting out of the car ? said the driver . I have to change a wheel”. ( Begin with : The driver asked me ……..)
19. “I’ve run out of petrol”, said the man “could you possibly give me a lift to the next village ?” ( Begin with : The man said ………)
20. “ Shall we go for a walk “ said Ali .
( Begin with : Ali suggested …………)
21. “Would you like a cigarette ? “ said he .
( Begin with : He offered ………..)
22. “ Can he wait a few minutes longer ? “ I said .
( Begin with : I wonder …………)
23. “ Where did you fined the bag you lost yesterday ? “
( Begin with : He asked her ……….)
24. “Could I see your driving license ? “ said the policeman .
( Begin with : The policeman asked ………..)

II. Change into direct speech :
1. The inspector asked the man if he always caught such an early train .
2. I asked her why she had been absent the day before .
3. He advised me to work harder and not to waste my time .
4. He wanted to know if had taken my breakfast and when I was going to leave .
5. She asked her friend when she was going to get married .
6. The police officer asked me whether I had seen the thief .
7. He offered me a cup of tea .
8. He suggested going a head and getting the tickets .
9. She told me to look where I was going as the road was full of holes and very badly lit .
10. He begged his father to forgive his mistake and promised not to make it again .
11. My friend told me to think well before I answered .
12. She asked me why I was pleased with that small modern house.
13. The father asked his son not to forget to post the letter .
14. He asked me to lend him my camera .

III. Choose the correct answer from those given in brackets.
1. She said that she never (work , worked , has worked , would work ) on Sundays .
2. Sami said that he (has finished , finished , finishing , had finished ) then .
3. Ali (suggested , told , asked , said ) if father would arrive the next day.
4. Tom asked Sam (if he has, why he had, why he has, why had he) been late.
5. My father (asked, insisted, said, told) me to work hard to succeed.
6. He asked me if I ( know , knew , known , knows ) what was inside the package .
7. I told him that the weather ( was , would be , had been , is ) fine the next day .
8. They said that they were tired and ( need , needed , ask , asked ) some rest .
9. He warned me that if I (went , go , had gone , would go ) to swim I would be drowned .
10. She asked me if I ( will help , to help , helped , help ) her .
11. She ( wanted , asked , exclaimed , ordered ) that her dress was fine .
12. He asked me ( not to use , if I didn’t use , did not use , if I had used ) that new car , and said I hadn’t .
13. Our leader says that we ( have to be , had to be , had been , have been ) well prepared .
14. He told me ( that I put , to put , will put , should put ) it on the table .
15. He advised me (to speak , not speak, speak no , not speaking ) until I was spoken to .
16. They ( asked , advised , claimed , ordered ) her to sing a song .
17. The doctor told him (that take , took , to take , taking ) rest .
18. The teacher (asked , advised , begged , told ) me to clean the blackboard.
19. I told her ( not to drop it , to drop it , dropped it , shouldn’t drop it ) or it would break .
20. He advised me to work hard otherwise I ( to fail , failed , would fail , can fail) .
21. When he entered the room the boss asked him (to come here , to come in , to go there , went there ) .
22. The patient asked (if he looks, what he looked, if he looked , how he looked ) all right .
23. I asked him where (he would be, would he be, was he , he is ) the following day .
24. He asked the tourist when she (will , would , would have , must) come again .

PREPOSTIONS

1 a) At, In, Off ( showing place, position ) تبين الموقع أو المكان
b) In, With ( describing people and their possessions )
تصف الناس وممتلكاتهم
(a) *At is used with address ( number or name of a house, etc. ) or to indicate a certain point.
تستخدم at مع عنوان ( رقم أو اسم المنزل ) أو لتبين موقعا معينا
He lives at 28, Shoubra Street.
A large crowd was waiting at the bus-stop.
* In indicates an enclosed space تبين موقعا محدودا
There were a lot of people in the street.
I would like to live in a warm country.
He lives in Berlin.
Note
In or at may be used with the same noun, but there is a slight difference in meaning.
قد تستخدم in أو at مع نفس الاسم ولكن هناك اختلاف في المعنى.
At means inside, just outside or just beside.
( i.e. the exact position is not clear.) ( الموقع الدقيق غير واضح )

In means inside only.
Compare:
(We are not sure whether I’ll see you at hotel.
This means at the entrance, just outside or inside the hotel ) .
I’ll see you in the hotel. (Here, We know we must go inside the hotel ).
* Off indicates separation and is, generally speaking the opposite of on. عن الانفصال ) off تعبر )
( The lid was on the jar.) The lid came off easily.
( You have your coat on ). Take your coat off.
b) * In is also used to describe what someone is wearing.
تستخدم in أيضا لتصف ما يلبسه شخص.
She was (dressed) in blue jeans.
* With indicates something that is a part of or accompanying a person or thing.
تدل with عن شىء هو جزء أو مصاحب لشخص أو شىء
The man with long hair is a poet.
The woman with the brown handbag is my mother.
2 Prepositions used with certain phrases to express time .
حروف جر تستخدم مع عبارات معينة لتعبر عن الزمن
• At is used to show :
a) a point of time . وقت محدد
at 2 o’clock ; at sunset ; at night ; at tea-time ; at any time : at any moment .
b) age. العمر أو السن
at ( the age of ) twenty .
• In is used :
a) before months. قبل الشهور
in January / February / etc.
b) before years. قبل السنين
in 1952 ; in the year 1973.
c) before seasons . قبل الفصول
in (the) winter / summer / etc.
d) before a period of the day . قبل فترة من اليوم
in the morning / evening . ( but at night )
• On is used :
a) with days مع الأيام on Friday / Saturday / etc.
on the first day of the month .
b) with dates : مع التاريخ on 20th May , etc.
c) in phrases such as : on that winter morning ; on a summer afternoon .
• from……till (until) : for “a period of time”
He stayed with me from 6 till 8 .
• during
a) throughout طول : during the night .
b) at a point of time within a period . أثناء
He spoke twice during the meeting .
* until / till : حتى . إلى أن up to that time .
He will not arrive until 10 o’clock .

Preposition indicating Direction:
حروف الجر التى تدل على أو تشير إلى الجهة أو الاتجاه
To : in the direction of (a place).
He flew to Washington last night.
From : indicates movement away ( from a place ) من
He returned from Paris last week .
Into : indicates motion or direction to a point within إلى الداخل
She has just gone into the kitchen .
Out of : ( a place ) outside of إلى الخارج
I threw the piece of paper out of the window .
For : is used with certain verbs like set out , leave , sail
To indicate the destination المكان المقصود of a journey .
We set out for the village early next morning .
Towards : indicates direction approaching (a place)
تدل على وجهة للاقتراب (من مكان )
She swam towards the shore .
At : indicating direction .
He looked at me .
Note : at used with certain verbs suggests توحى
“aggressiveness” عدوان or rudeness وقاحة
He threw a stone at the dog .(in order to hit the dog)
It’s rude من الوقاحة to point at people .

Verbs followed by prepositions :
OF ( of أفعال يليها حرف الجر )
يؤكد:
يشكو من:
يشفى من :
يتوقع:
يستشم منه:
متعب من : assure
complain
cure
expect
smell
tired يوافق:
يفتخر بـ:
يقنع بـ:
يحلم:
يتخلص:
يتأمل في: approve
boast
convince
dream
get rid
think يتهم :
يحذر:
يتكون من :
ييأس من:
يسمع عن :
يشتبه في : accuse
beware
consist
despair
hear
suspect
FROM ( from أفعال يليها حرف الجر )
يطلب من :
يهرب:
يمنع:
يتلقى من :
يفصل عن: demand
escape
prevent
receive
separate يقي من :
يطرد:
يعيق :
يقي أو يحمي:
defend
dismiss
hinder
protect
يقترض:
يختلف عن :
يعفى من :
يعاني من: borrow
differ
excuse
suffer
IN ( in أفعال يليها حرف الجر )
يعمل في:
خبرة في:
يتضمن:
يهتم بـ:
يساهم(يشارك) في: employ (ed )
experience (d)
include
interest (ed)
share يفرح بـ:
ينهمك:
يساعد:
يعلم:
يصر على: delight
engage(d)
help
instruct
persist يؤمن بـ:
يشجع:
يفشل في :
ينغمس في : believe
encourage
fail
indulge

ON (on أفعال يليها حرف الجر )
يزور شخصاً
يركز
يهنئ بـ:
يصمم على:
يقتات بـ:
يجري عملية على : call
concentrate
congratulate
decide
live
operate يبني على :
يعلق على:
يقتصد:
يصر على:
يتكئ على:
يعتمد على: base(d)
comment
economize
insist
lean
rely يعمل وفق:
يستشير:
يعتمد على:
يقوم بتجربة على:
يعزف على:
يكتب عن : act
consult
depend
experiment

perform
write
To ( to أفعال يليها حرف الجر )
ينطبق على:
يشبه أو يقارن:
يعني بـ:
يتحدى، يعترض على:
يعترف لـ:
يصغي:
يهتم بـ:
يستسلم: apply
compare
attend
challenge
confess
listen
see(to)
yield يعتاد على :
ينتمي إلى :
يحكم على:
يوافق:
يشير:
يحول:
يفضل على(عن):
يستسلم: accustom
belong
condemn
consent
mention
convert
prefer
surrender
AT (at أفعال يليها حرف الجر )
يندهش:
يقرع على:
يصيح:
ينظر إلى:
يدهش: astonish
knock
exclaim stare
look
surprised يصل إلى:
يلمح:
يصدم:
يعمل arrive
glance
shocked
work يضحك من :
يخمن :
يشير :
يعجب: amuse(d)
guess
point
wonder
FOR (for أفعال يليها حرف الجر )
يعتذر:
يعلل:
يلوم:
يقايض:
يخزن:
ينهض بأعباء كذا:
يصوت (لصالح): apologize
account
blame
exchange
mourn
provide
vote يقوم (مقام):
يعرج على شخص ليذهب معه:
يبحث عن:
يتهم:
يجهز:
يشكر: act
call

look
charge
prepare
thank يطلب:
يلتمس:
يأمل:
يدفع الثمن:
يحسبه شخصاً أو شيئاً آخر:
ينتظر
يبحث: ask
beg
hope
pay
mistake
wait
search
WITH ( with أفعال يليها حرف الجر )
يتصل:
يتنافس مع:
ينهي بـ:
يساعد:
يشغل بـ:
يتشاجر مع:
يرضى: communicate
compete
finish
help
occupy
quarrel
satisfy يبدأ:
يخلط بين:
يكون على مستوى كذا:
يتوافق:
يخلط بـ:
يسر
يجادل: begin
confuse
cope
correspond
mix
pleased
reason يتفق:
يقارن بـ:
يتباين :
يشمئز:
يتدخل في :
يتخلى عن : agree
compare
contrast
disgust
interfere
part

Adjectives followed by prepositions:
صفات تتبعها حروف جر
for , with , of , at , from , in , on , and about
For
Eager شغوف enough كافي sufficient, كاف famous, مشهور fit لائق grateful, شاكر qualified, مؤهل ready مستعد responsible مسئول عن sorry آسف thankful شاكر

With

Angry ( with someone) غاضب من busy مشغول ******* قانع ، مسرور familiar معتاد على patient صبور popular محبوب

Of

Afraid خائف ahead إلى الأمام aware عارف بـ capable نادر careful حريص certain متأكد conscious دار بـ envious حسود
Fond مغرم guilty مذنب ignorant جاهل independent مستقل

jealous غيور North/south /east / west إلى الشمال / الجنوب/ الشرق/ الغرب من short of يعوزه shy خجول sure أكيد worthy جدير بـ

TO

Close قريب من contrary على عكس cruel قاس dear عزيز equal مساو faithful مخلص fatal مميت harmful ضار indifferent غير مكترث inferior أدنى مرتبة liable عرضة لكذا obedient مطيع obvious واضح polite مؤدب previous سابق rude وقح sensitive حساس similar مشابه useful نافع grateful شاكر

AT

Bad رديء clever ماهر efficient كفء expert خبير good جيد indignant ساخط quick سريع sad حزين slow بطيء

FROM

Away from بعيدا عن different from مختلف عن far from بعيدا عن save from في مأمن من

IN

Fortunate سعيد الحظ honest أمين weak ضعيف

ON

Dependent متوقف على intent منصب على keen جاد

ABOUT

Curious فضولي doubtful مرتاب enthusiastic متحمس
Reluctant كاره ل right على صواب uneasy قلق


REVISION EXERCISE ON PREPOSITION

(A) Choose the correct preposition between brackets:
1. He accused the man (for- of- by) theft .
2. I am accustomed (with – by – to) hot weather.
3. The girl is afraid (from – of- by ) the dog .
4. He aimed ( on – against – at ) the bird.
5. The teacher was angry ( against – with – at ) him .
6. He was angry ( at – with – from ) the weather .
7. They are anxious قلق (for- about- with) his health .
8. Parents are anxious يتلهف ( for – about – with ) the children’s success .
9. We arrived (to – at – in ) the village at night .
10. He is now ashamed (from – with – of ) his conduct .
11. People must not believe ( of - to – in ) ghosts .
12. She has boasted تفاخر (for – with – of) her riches .
13. He is very careful (with – in – of ) her riches .
14. He came (with – for – by) train .
15. Many people complain (by – for – of) the heat.
16. I have great confidence (in – to – for) him .
17. I congratulate you (for – with – on) your success .
18. A year consists (from – by – of) twelve months .
19. The mountains are covered (by – with – of) snow .
20. The man was cured (from – of – against) his illness .
21. The man depended (from – of – on) himself .
22. Many people have died (from – with – of) malaria .
23. I was disappointed (from – by – in) his work .
24. My book is different (than – to – from) yours .
25. I divided the cake (to – in – into) four parts .
26. I have no doubt (for – of – in) his ability .
27. The woman was dressed (with – in – by) black .
28. This is an exception ( of – from – to ) the rule.
29. He failed ( from – with – in ) geography last year.
30. The jar was full ( from – of – with ) oil.
31. I shall be glad to get rid ( for – from – of ) him.
32. I am glad ( of – from – with ) the news.
33. My brother is good( in – for – at ) history.
34. He is ( week in- at – with ) grammar.
35. He always insists ( about – for – on ) his opinion.
36. She is not interested ( for – with – in ) her work.
37. He is very jealous ( from – of – with ) his brother.
38. They are leaving ( to – for – towards) England.
39. He lives ( on – from- by ) his brother’s money.
40. Look ( to – for – at ) this beautiful picture.
41. She was married ( with - to – by ) a rich man.
42. Their house is opposite ( with – from – to ) ours.
43. He plays ( with – by – for ) that team.
44. The teacher is pleased ( by – with – from ) me.
45. They are pleased ( at – for – about ) what she said.
46. I prefer a blue pen ( from – to – for ) a red one.
47. He is very proud ( with – from – of ) his father.
48. Are you satisfied ( by – from – with ) your marks?
49. The teacher often sits ( on - at – by ) his disk.
50. I hope he will succeed ( at – in – by ) his work.
51. I am sure ( of – by – for ) his honesty.
52. We were surprised ( for – with – at ) his failure.
53. Th boys are tired ( by – from – of ) boiled eggs.
54. He translated the passage ( to – into – with ) Arabic.
55. I have written the letter ( by – in – with ) ink.
56. He prevented me ( to form- by ) going to the cinema.
57. He always thinks ( in- of – by ) going to England.
58. He had no difficulty ( at – for – in ) doing it.

WORD ORDER
6 1 2 3 4 5 6
Time/ subject / verb / object or complement / manner / place / time
- He read the letter quickly in his office before lunch.
- The Nile runs through Egypt.

KIN‎DS OF SENTENCES

1- الجملة البسيطة The simple sentence
2- الجملة المركبة The compound sentence
3- الجملة المعقدة The complex sentence






THE SIMPLE SENTENCE:-
تتكون من فاعل + فعل أساسي واحد + مفعول به


Two Simple sentences
1- The soldiers are on the front lines.
2- They protect our lines.
One combined sentence.
* The soldiers on the front lines
Protect our lines.
عبارة وصفية (adjectival phrase )

1- He had finished his composition.
2- He revised it * Having finished his
composition he revised it.
تعبير من اسم الفاعل (participial phrase)

1- Mancy wrote his composition.
2 – No one helped him. * He wrote his composition
Without help from any one.
( preposition )

1- He went to Atreeb.
2- He wished to visit Mr. Akmal. * He went to Atreeb to visit
Mr. Akmal.
( the infinitive)

1- Desokey was weak.
2- He could not walk. * Desokey was too weak
To walk. (the infinitive )

THE COMPOUND SENTENCE
تتكون من جملتين بسيطتين مربوطتين بأداة ربط معينة مثل :-
and / and so / and nor / both … and …/ neither … nor…/
..not only ….but also…/ not only……but ……as well / as well as/
*but / yet / however/ nevertheless /
*thus / so / therefore / hence / consequently /
*either ……. Or ….. / …. Or ….. / …….. otherwise …….. /
*who / whom / which / that / whose / as / but
(LOOK AT THE BOOKLET “ SPECTRUM” TO SEE THE USE OF EACH WARD)

As well as :
Both and , not only …………. But تستخدم مثل
- I’m interested in music
- My brother is interested in music
- I, as well as my brother, am interested in music.
But – yet – however – nevertheless :
أدوات ربط جملتين بسيطتين متناقضتين ( contrast )

- He is rather old . - His wife is young
* He is rather old but ( yet – however ) his wife is young.
- He is blind. - He could find his way.
* He was blind however ( but – nevertheless ) he could find his way

Thus – so – therefore – hence – consequently :
أدوات ربط جملتين والجملة الثنية تكون نتيجةr esalt للجملة الثانية وأي أداة تحل محل الأخرى
- Shaimaa was sick. -She went to the doctor.
* Shaimaa was sick consequently ( hence ) she went to the doctor.

Either ……… or - or ………. Otherwise الاختيار - You must study hard . -You will not get high marks.
- You must study hard Otherwise ( or ) you will not get high marks.
أما إذا كان الفاعلين مختلفين فإن الفعل يتبع الفاعل الثاني :
Either I or he is to blame.

Who – whom – which ( that ) – whose – as – but :
(LOOK AT THE BOOKLET “ SPECTRUM”)
This is not such a good result as I hoped.
This is not plant but requires water.

The complex sentence : الجملة المعقدة
تتكون الجملة المعقدة من :-
1 – جملة رئيسية principal clause وهذه تؤدي معنى كامل بمفردها
2 – جملة فرعية أو أكثرsubordinate clause وهذه لا يمكن أن تؤدي معنى كامل بمفردها
He missed the train , because he didn’t hurry.
تنقسم الجملة المعقدة إلى ثلاث أجزاء :
1 – الجملة الاسمية ( التي تؤدي عمل الاسم ) Noun clause
2 – الجملة الوصفية ( التي تؤدي عمل الصفة ) Adjective clause
الأسماء الموصولة + v . to be أو أي فعل مناسب + الصفة
The man who is wise can solve his problems.
The man who is intelligent can overcome his problems.
People who are living in Alexandria enjoy the sea.
3 – الجملة الظرفية ( التي تؤدي عمل الظرف ) adverbial clause وهي لها أنواع عديدة تختلف باختلاف أدوات الربط التابعة لها .
A : Clause of Purpose :

clause phrase
That to
so that may in order to + inf
in the hope that + s . + might + inf so as to
in order that
for
with the aim of + noun
with the intention of

* He studies hard so that he may succeed.
- He studies hard in order to succeed.
- He studies hard with the aim of succeed.

* They went to Benha in the hope that they might enjoy the fresh air.
- They went to Benha so as to enjoy the fresh air.
- They went to Benha for enjoying the fresh air.

clause phrase
Least

For fear that + s. + should + inf. So as not to + inf.
For fear of + noun


* Ismail got up early for fear that he should miss the train.
- Ismail got up early so as not to miss the train.
- Ismail got up early for fear of missing the train.

B: Clause of result:

clause phrase

So + adj./adv. + that الصفة + enough for + الفاعل الثاني +to + inf
Such + + that Too + adj. + to + inf.

* Dalia was so clever that she passed the examination
* Dalia was such clever girl that she passed the examination
* Dalia had such cleverness that she passed the examination.
* So clever was she that she passed the examination.
* Such a clever girl was she that she passed the examination.
- Dalia was clever enough to pass the examination.
* We were so impatient that we couldn’t wait any longer.
- We were too impatient to wait any longer.

* Some people are so short sighted that they can not appreciate matters.
- Some people are too short sighted to appreciate matters.

* Our soldiers were so brave that they distorted the enemy.
- Our soldiers were brave enough to distorted the enemy.

C. Clause of cause .

clause phrase

Because – for – since – as because of / owing to / on account of / for
/ as result of / due to / thanks to
/being + adj. / for lack of. + noun


* Eman stayed in bed as she was ill .
- Eman stayed in bed as a result of her illness .
- Being ill Eman stayed in bed .

*He could over come his difficulties (since/because/as) he was intelligent .
- Thanks to his intelligence , he could over come his difficulties .

* He couldn’t marry because he hadn’t enough money .
- For lack of money he couldn’t marry .

D. Clause of contrast .

Clause phrase
Although /though /even though in spite of
Even if /however /whatever /as despite
for all + noun
Not with standing
Regard less of
* Although / though / he was poor he was happy
* Even though he was poor he was happy .
* Poor though he was , he was happy .
- In spite of his poverty he was happy .
استعمالهم واحد even though / if though / although
* What ever the results may be he will travel to Italy .
- Regardless of the results , he will travel to Italy .
ولكن يأتى بعدها إسم although بدلا من what ever يمكن استعمال
* He can climb the tree however high it is .
- He can climb the tree not with standing its highness .
ولكن يجب أن تأتي بعدها صفة although بدلا من however ** يمكن استعمال

* Clever as he was ,Ahmed could not answer.
* Although he was clever, Ahmed could not answer.
- Despite / for all his cleverness, Ahmed could not answer.
• إذا جاءت as بعد صفة فإنها تعني although
E: Clause of time:

Clause
While – when (as) – till – until-
since – after- before – as soon as-
no sooner……than……
hardly………when…..
scarcely…….when….. phrase
During/ on
Till / since/ after/ + noun

Immediately on + noun
Immediately after


* While (as) Mona was studying her lessons, the light went out
- Studying her lessons, the light went out.
- During her studying , the light went out.

* When ( as ) the enemy saw our brave soldiers, he ran away.
- On seeing our brave soldier, the enemy ran away.

* She waited for me till ( until ) I returned.
- She waited for me till my return.

* I haven’t seen her since she departed.
- I haven’t seen her since she departing ( departure).

* After I had finished my work, I went home.
- After finishing my work, I went home
- Having finished my work, I went home.

* I had no sooner reached the station than the train left.
- No sooner had I reached the station than the train left.
- Immediately on reaching the station, the train left.

F. CLAUSE OF CONDITION


Clause Phrase

Were, had should, If, If not, In case of , With, by + noun
Unless, should not , were not, had not But for, without + noun


* If he succeeded , he would join in university.
* Were he to succeed, he would join the university.
- In case of his success, he would join the university.
- In case of his succeeding, he would join the university.
* If I had not helped him, he would have died.
* Unless I had helped him, he would have died.
- But for my help, he would have died.
- Without my help, he would have died.

G. CLAUSE OF MANNER

clause phrase
As كما According to
In accordance with + noun

As if – as though كما لو كان Like + n./ in + adj. + way

• They answered as I instructed them.
- They answered in accordance with my instructions.
• He did it just as his father ordered him.
- He did it according to his father order.
• He walks proudly as if he were a king.
• He walks proudly like a king.
- He walks proudly in a kingly way.

H. CLAUSE OF COMPARISON

Clause Phrase
( as- as ) equal in + n.
( not so – as ) [ not ]
( than ) equally + adj.


* She is as short as her mother.
- They are equal in shortness.
- They are equally short.
* Faten is not so clever as Mai is.
- They are not equal in cleverness.
- They are not equally clever.
* I’m stronger than he is.
- We are not equal in strength.
- We are not equally strong.

NOUN CLAUSES
من الممكن تحويل الاسم إلى جملة اسمية باستعمال أدوات الربط الآتية:-
What - Where – Who – Why – How- That – When – How many - How much – How wide…. etc……
* What she said made me angry.
- Her words ( speech ) made me angry.
* That she failed, was unexpected.
- Her failure, was unexpected.
* Tell me where you live.
- Tell me your address.
* I know who wrote this book.
- I know the writer of this book.
* No one knows why he travelled.
- No one knows the reason of his travel.
* He told me when he arrived.
- He told me the time of his arrival.
* The woman doesn’t know how many children she got.
- The woman doesn’t know the number of her children.
* Ola knows how she makes Mahshi.
- Ola knows how to make Mahshi.
- Ola knows the way of making Mahshi.

* We hope that he succeed.
- We hope for his success.
* Do you know how wide our school is?
- Do you know the width of our school?
* Ask the worker how deep the well is.
-Ask the worker the depth of the well.
* Do you know how much this house costs?
- Do you know the cost of this house?

Join the following sentences together so as to make complex sentences, containing time clauses:
1- He returned home. He has not got out.
2- He reached the top of the mountain. He fell down.
3- I shall wait for you. You return.
4- He was running quickly. He fell down.
5- He fell down. They caught him.
6- We started running. We returned.
7- Napoleon had invaded some countries. He was beaten.
8- We were flying at full speed. The aeroplane landed suddenly.
9- He started walking. He fell down dead.
10- He went away. He has not sent me a letter.

Change into simple sentences.
1- I was happy when I heard the news of my success.
2- While I was walking along the street, I met him.
3- After he had done his homework, he went out.
4- Think carefully before you give your decision.
5- I’ll wait for your till / until you arrive.
6- I’ve not seen him since he visited me last month.
7- I remembered him as soon as I met him.
8- No sooner had he entered the class than he left it .
9- Hardly had the plane taken off when it landed .

Do as shown in brackets :
1- He talked so much that he annoyed me .
2- He spoke very politely . Everyone praised him.
3- He is such a careless boy ………. .
4- Such a clever boy ( he was – was he – had he ) that he got full marks .
5- He is such a foolish pupil that he is always a failure .
6- He spoke very clearly . Everyone listened to him.
7- He spent so much money ………. .
8- He was very brave . He never yielded .
9- He was such a brave leader that He never yielded.
10- The question is………difficult that I never cannot answer it.
11- He was such a clever boy that he has got full marks.
12- So quickly (did the train move – the train moved – moved the train) that he could not catch it.
13- He ran so quickly that he caught the train.
14- He was to lazy to succeed.
15- The lesson was so easy that we could understand it. ( Begin with : So)
( Join using : so ……. that)
( complete )
(Choose the correct answer )

( Begin with : such )
(Join using: so… that)

(complete )
(Join using: So … that)
( Begin with : Such )

( Fill in the space )

(Change into a simple sentence)

(Choose the correct answer)

(use : enough to)
( use : so …… that)


Do as required in brackets :
1. Despite her beauty , no one proposed to her .
(Change into a simple sentence )
2. He failed in spite of his cleverness . ( Use : although )
3. Generous as he was , no one loved him . ( Use : although )
4. Regardless of his stupidity , he succeeded . ( Use : although )
5. ( Although – despite – regardless of ) he was rich , he was unhappy .
( Choose the correct word )
6. Poor as he is , he is proud . ( Simple sentence )
7. Regardless of his wealth , he asked me to lend him a pound .
( Use : although )
8. In spite of his innocence, he was punished. (use : although )
9. However unlucky she was, she felt happy.
(change into a complex sentence )

Choose the correct words in brackets :
1. He could not come ( until – while – because ) he was busy .
2. He was able to pass his exams ( until – before – since ) his teacher helped him .
3. The teacher punished him ( when – as soon as – since ) he was careless .
4. He could climb the hill ( thus – then – as ) he is strong and healthy .
5. ( Hardly – as soon as – as ) you are tired , you had better rest .
6. he could bend the iron bar ( since – as a result – till ) he was strong .
7. ( Because – till – as soon as ) he is dishonest , he did not repay the money he borrowed , from me .

Change into the complex sentences into simple sentences or vice-versa :
1. He succeeded because he was clever .
2. He did not go to school since he was ill .
3. He was loved owing to his politeness .
4. I cannot believe him because he tells lies .
5. He ran quickly as he was late .
6. I am going to bed because of feeling tired .
7. He failed in the exam owing to his carelessness .
8. He came late as he missed the train .
9. He took his umbrella because it was raining .
10. He can’t go to school owing to his illness .

Change into simple sentences.
1- She spoke as if she were afraid.
2- She looked at me as though she wished to frighten me. يرعبني
3- He did it as ( just as ) I ordered him.
4- He ran as if he was running for his life.
5- He talks as if he knew every thing.
6- He walked as though he were a peacock.
7- She ran as quickly as it she were a deer.
8- The house seems as if it were a palace.

Change the following clauses into phrases and vice-versa.
1- She is of my intelligence.
2- She is the shorter of us.
3- We are equal in strength.
4- They are equal in courage.
5- She is of her sister’s beauty.
6- I am as poor as he (is).
7- He is poorer than I (am).
8- She is not so charming as her sister (is).
9- We are of the same beauty.
10 - She is not of our wealth.


Change the simple sentences into complex sentences and vice-versa:
1- I met Aly while I was walking on the bridge.
2- He met me where the street begins.
3- She acted as I had advised her.
4- He fought bravely as if he were a lion.
5- He did not go to school since he was tired.
6- We worked hard last year in order that we might succeed.
7- He studies hard lest he should fail.
8- The pupil worked so hard that he succeeded.
9- She was such a charming girl that she turned his head.
10- Although she was beautiful no one proposed to her.
11- In case of success, I’ll go abroad.
12- Unless he came early , he would be punched.
13- I should have helped him if he had told me.
14- Had he taken my advice, he would have worked hard.
15- He was such a lazy boy that he could not succeed.
16- He ran quickly for fear that he should miss the train.
17- We were all present when he came.
18- As soon as the thief saw the policeman , he ran away.
19- Unless he works hard, he will fall.
20- If the Nile did not flow through Egypt, it would be a desert.
21- The sun is so hot that no one can exist on it.
22- As soon as I saw him, I told him what had happened.
23- Whatever faults he may have, miserliness is not one of them.
24- Although the children come from poor home, they are quite well behaved.
25- He ran quickly enough to catch me.
26- In case of illness, I go to doctor.
27- When he died, his children wept much.
28- If it had not been for my help, he would have been drowned.
29- But for his help, I would have droned.
30- In case of illness, I go to a doctor.

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Subject Page
Words order in simple statement
TENSES
Simple tenses
Continuous tenses
Perfect tenses
Perfect continuous tenses
Conjugation of common irregular verbs
RULES
General exercises on tenses
How to make a question
Negation
Comparison of adjectives
Conditional statement (IF)
Active and passive voice
Causative (HAVE)
Direct & Indirect (Reported Speech)
1- statement
2- question
3- command & request
4- exclamation
Prepositions
Kinds of sentences
1- simple sentences
2- compound sentences
3- complex sentences
Clause & Phrase
A- clause of purpose
B- clause of result
C- clause of cause
D- clause of contrast
E- clause of time
F- clause of condition
G- clause of manner
H- clause of comparison
Noun Clause

 

 

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